Damas

Manenekazi.Injongo yokubamba okanye ukukhubaza iziqwenga zomdlali welinye iqela. Umdlali okwaziyo ukutya nganye nganye kumaqhekeza omchasi uwina umdlalo. Sithetha ngomnye wemidlalo yebhodi eyaziwa kakhulu kwaye idlalwe kwiplanethi.

Umdlalo wabavavanyi udlalwa phakathi kwabadlali aba-2, kwibhodi yesikwere, kwizikwere ezingamashumi amathandathu anesine ngokukhanya okumnyama kunye namacwecwe amnyama alishumi elinambini.

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    Abakhangeli: Uyidlala njani inyathelo ngenyathelo?

    Ukudlala abahloli kwi-intanethi simahla, kufuneka nje qhubeka le miyalelo:
    1. Vula isikhangeli sakho osithandayo kwaye uye kwindawo yomdlalo Isiphelo sendlela.
    2. Nje ukuba ungene kwisiza, umdlalo uza kuboniswa kwiscreen. Kuya kufuneka kuphela ukudlala umdlalo kwaye ngoku ungaqala ukukhetha ubumbeko oluthandayo. Uyakwazi ukukhetha phakathi kokudlala nomhlobo, kwaye emva kokukhetha, uya kuba nakho ukuqala ukudlala umdlalo.
    3. Ngoku, uya kufumana amaqhosha aluncedo. Ngaba "Yongeza okanye susa isandi ", nika iqhosha "umdlalo"Kwaye uqale ukudlala, unga"Nqumama"Kwaye"Qalisa kwakhona"Nangaliphi ixesha.
    4. Yenza umdlali wakho ukuba ahambe kodwa ahlukane.
    5. Emva kokugcwalisa umdlalo, cofa ku “Qalisa kwakhona”Ukuqala kwakhona.

    Umdlalo wokujonga: amanqaku

    "Damas"ngumdlalo webhodi ebekhona kwiinkulungwane kwaye apho ukubheja kubekwa ngokunye kwaye iziqwenga zinokuthathwa kumchasi. Uyaphumelela xa umdlali engenawo amaqhekeza okanye uhanjisiwe ukuze kungabikho ndlela yokuhamba.

    Injongo yomdlalo "Checkers" 

    Injongo "ladies" na  vimba iintshukumo zomchasi okanye asuse iziqwenga ezininzi kangangokuba akasakwazi kuhamba.

    Uhlobo lomdlalo:

    • Umdlalo wosapho
    • Umdlalo ohlekisayo
    • Ngobuchule
    • Isicwangciso sobuchule
    • Cinga

    Inani labadlali, ubudala kunye nexesha lokudlala:

    • I-2 jugadores
    • Ukusukela kwiminyaka engama-6

    Izixhobo zomdlalo:

    • Isicwangciso se chess
    • Iziqwenga ezili-12 ezimhlophe
    • Iziqwenga ezili-12 ezimnyama

    Isiphelo:

    Imithetho elula kakhulu kwaye ke ilungele abadlali abancinci, kodwa iyonwabisa nakubantu abadala.

    Imbali ye "Ladies"

    Inyaniso yileyo Akukho mntu wazi ngokuchanekileyo ngawuphi umzuzu okanye indlela umdlalo owaqala ngayo, Kodwa yintoni eqinisekileyo kukuba iLadies ibikhona ixesha elide, nangona UPlato Waxoka malunga nayo njengomdlalo iGrisi ebolekwe kwi-Egypt.

    Ithiyori yokuqala kukuba olona hlobo lwakudala lwabavavanyi yayingumdlalo ofunyenwe kwindawo yokumbiwa kwezinto zakudala IUre, Iraq. Ukuthandana kwekhabhoni kubonisa ukuba umdlalo sele ukhona malunga namawaka amathathu BC.

    Nangona kunjalo, le nguqulelo kuthiwa yeyokuqala isebenzisa ibhodi eyahlukileyo ngobuqhetseba, inani elahlukileyo lamaqhekeza, kwaye akukho mntu waziyo ukuba yeyiphi na imigaqo echanekileyo.

    KwiYiputa endala, umdlalo ubizwa Alquerque, eyayisebenzisa ibhodi ye-5X5, yayingumdlalo onxulumene nabavavanyi owawudlalwa ngokubanzi ngelo xesha.

    Ababhali-mbali balanda imvelaphi yayo 1400 BC kwaye babanga ukuba ukuthandwa kwabo kwakukukhulu kangangokuba yayidlalwa kwihlabathi liphela lasentshona ngaphezulu kwamawaka kunye namawaka eminyaka.

    Malunga 1100 AD, umFrentshi wayenombono wokudlala iitsheki kwibhodi yechess. Oku kuthetha ukwandisa inani lamaqhekeza ukuya kwishumi elinambini kwicala ngalinye. Le nguqulo intsha ibizwa ngokuba yi "AmaFireges"Kulungile"Iiferses".

    Kungekudala, amaFrentshi aqaphele nokuba ukwenza ukutsiba kunyanzelekile kwenza umdlalo ube ngumceli mngeni ngakumbi kwaye bagqiba kwelokuba babize le nguqulo intsha "Jeu amandla".

    Utshintsho oludala lwaluthathwa njengomdlalo wentlalontle kwabasetyhini kwaye labizwa ngokuba yi "Le Jeu Plaisant De Dames" (Umdlalo oMnandi waBakhangeli).

    Ukusuka kwiitafile ukuya kwiikhompyuter

    Ngemithetho yabavavanyi echazwe ngamaFrentshi, umdlalo wathunyelwa eNgilani naseMelika, uqhubeke nolawulo lwayo lwehlabathi. Ku-G. Brittany, yafumana igama " Imiqulu "kunye nesazi sezibalo esidumileyo UWilliam Payne wabhala incwadi yakhe kwezokungcakaza kwiminyaka elishumi elinesixhenxe elinamashumi amahlanu anesithandathu. Nangona kunjalo, kule minyaka idlulileyo, iDamas igcine ukuthandwa kwayo.

    Ke ngoko, ukusikelwa umda kokuhamba kwe-2 kwenzelwe abadlali abanamava, kubanyanzela ukuba baqale umdlalo ngokungahleliwe. Namhlanje, ukuya kuthi ga kwimida yokuhamba emi-3 isetyenziswa kubuntshatsheli.

    Amanenekazi afikelele kwizikrini zeenkqubo zekhompyuter ngaphambi kweMfazwe yesibini yeHlabathi. 

    Nangona iikhompyuter zazikwinqanaba elinzima lokuphuhliswa, ubukhazikhazi Alan Turing wenze inkqubo esisiseko yamaLadies efuna ukubalwa kwenziwe ephepheni (ngenxa yokuba oomatshini bengakwazi ukwenza umsebenzi).

    Ekugqibeleni, 1952 Kwakungunyaka ophawulekayo kwimbali enemibala yomdlalo, xa UArthur L. Samuel Uyile Inkqubo yokuqala yokujonga esetyenziswa yikhompyuter. Ngokuthe ngcembe, ezi nkqubo zomdlalo zaphuculwa njengoko isantya kunye namandla eekhompyuter ayonyuka.

    NgoJulayi XNUMX, iqela elivela kwiDyunivesithi yase-Alberta likhokelwa nguJonathan Schaeffer labhengeza ukuba bayisombulule imidlalo yabahloli.

    Inkqubo Chinook , ephuhliswe yiyo yonke, ifikelele kwinqanaba lokuvela kwayo elibonakalise ukuba alinakulinganiswa. Ngale ndlela, iqela likwazile ukungqina ukuba abavavanyi ngumdlalo wokuzoba, Oko kukuthi, izakuhlala iphela ngokuzoba ukuba zombini iqela elichasayo lenze amanyathelo afanelekileyo.

    Nangona kunjalo, umdlalo ugcina ukuthandwa kwawo, nabantu abavela kwihlabathi liphela bedlala iinguqulelo zabo ezahlukeneyo ukonwaba, baqeqesha ukucinga kwabo okunengqiqo, okanye bonwabele ixesha elisemgangathweni lokudlala nosapho kunye nabahlobo.

    Idlalwa njani "iitshekhi"?

    Ukulungiselela umdlalo

    Umdlali omnye ufumana iziqwenga ezimhlophe, omnye nomnye wamacandelo amnyama: ngubani odlala umbala onjani, abadlali aba-2 abanokukhetha phakathi kwabo.
    Amaqhekeza ke abekwa kwimiqolo engaphandle yebhodi yomdlalo ejongene.

    Comenzando

    Njalo kwaye kuzo zonke iimeko qalisa ngamaqhekeza amnyama.

    Idlalwa njani?

    Iziqwenga zihlala zihlala kwaye kuzo zonke iimeko zibekiwe ulwalathiso lwe-oblique intsimi ejonge phambili. Ukuba sele likho ilitye ebaleni, alinakuhlalwa, nokuba lelakho okanye lelomdlali welinye iqela lisentsimini.

    Ukuba uhlangabezana nesikwere esiwela isikwere esimnyama ngelitye elichaseneyo, ungatsiba kushukuma olulandelayo, ukuba nje isikwere ngasemva kwelitye elichaseneyo alinanto. Uyaxhuma kumaqhekeza aphikisayo kwaye emva koko ungawakhupha ngaphandle komdlalo. Ukutsiba iziqwenga zakho akuvumelekanga. Awunakho ukubuyela umva ngaphandle kwenenekazi.

    Ukuba ufikelela kwifayile ye- Uluhlu oluphezulu lomchasi ngelitye lakho, i Umdlali ufumana ukumkanikazi ngubani onokuthi athathe amanyathelo kule meko kwithuba elilandelayo.

    La dama ichonga ukubeka iziqwenga ezi-2 enye kwenye. Kule nto ufuna i- qhekeza ebikhona isuswe kumdlalo.

    Izibonelelo zalo zezi Unokwenza ngokujongana ngaphambili kwaye ujonge umva ngokungekho mthethweniOko kukuthi, ungahambisa amasimi amaninzi ujonge phambili okanye ubuso ngobuso njengoko uthanda. Ukuncamathelisa iziqwenga ezichaseneyo kwenzeka ngendlela efanayo. Umdlali ngamnye ufumana ukumkanikazi omnye. Ukuba ulahlekelwa ngukumkanikazi ngenxa yokungabikho kwengqwalaselo, unokufumana inenekazi lesibini.

    Umdlali ongowokuqala ukwenza intshukumo ulahlekile.

    Yintoni injongo yeli nenekazi?

    Kuya kufuneka uthathe elowo nalowo weentshukumo ezichaseneyo zomdlali wakho ekubetha okanye ukuvimba iziqwenga zakhe.

    Ifunyanwa njani "iDama"?

    Ukuba umdlali welinye iqela akasenazintshukumo, uya kuphumelela.

    Ngubani "iNenekazi" elifanele yena?

    Umdlalo webhodi "Daae" ngu ejolise kubadlali abafuna ukuvavanya izakhono zabo zobuchule kunye nezobuchule ngababini. Iyaduma ukusuka kwiminyaka emithandathu.

    Lithini ixabiso "leNenekazi"?

    Kuxhomekeke kumsasazi kunye nohlobo, "uDame" uyatshintsha phakathi iirandi ezilishumi kwimidlalo elula kunye 63 euro kwiimodeli ezintle kakhulu.

    Yintoni ebalulekileyo kwi "Lady"?

    Kwiqhinga, isenzo sobuchule, kunye nokucamngca ngaphambi kwexesha ukuqala oololiwe ngobulumko.

    Ngaba ukubetha umva nge "Checkers" kuyanyamezelwa?

    Ewe, ukuba ungancamathisela, unokuncamathisela ukusuka icala ngecala .

    Iindidi zamaLadies

    Zakudala 

    • U-Queen ngaphandle kokubambaukumkanikazi uhamba ediagonally, ewela izithuba ezingenanto azifunayo, ejonge phambili okanye ngasemva, ngaphandle kokuthatha naliphi na iqhekeza lombala ohlukileyo kwindlela yakhe kwaye akanakutshintsha loo diagonal.
    • Ukumkanikazi ngokubamba: ukuba kukho esinye isiqwenga sedayagonal yakho, ithoni yomchasi, ukubamba kungenziwa kuphela ukuba kukho esinye okanye izikwere ezininzi ezingenanto emva kwesiqwenga somchasi, ukubamba kunyanzelekile. Ukumkanikazi akunyanzelekanga ukuba aqhubeke nesiza emva kwesiqwenga esifakiweyo. Kuyaziwa kwihlabathi liphela, kuphakathi kweyona midlalo idumileyo njenge: chess, itsheki kunye yenze.

    Abahloli baseTshayina

    Abakhangeli baseTshayina baqulathe iinkwenkwezi ezi-6 ezijolise kwi-grid. Apho imigca idibana khona, oko kukuthi, kwiindawo, iichips zibekwa. Injongo kukuba hambisa iithayile ezili-15 ezijonge kwinqanaba lenkwenkwezi ngendlela ethe ngqo.

    Abafazi baseNtaliyane 

    Imigaqo iyafana naleyo yamanenekazi emveli, anezi nguqu zilandelayo:

    • Ibhodi ibekwe ngesikwere esimhlophe kwicala lasekhohlo.
    • Awunakho ukumkanikazi.
    • Ukuba umdlali akathathi siqwenga xa kunokwenzeka, bayaphulukana nomdlalo.

    Amanenekazi esiNgesi 

    Ngokuchanekileyo imigaqo efanayo neetayile zesiko, ngaphandle kwaleyo umdlali angakhetha ukubamba nasiphi na isiqwenga kwaye hayi eyona ndlela inyanzelekileyo ngokuzibophelela. Uncedo kuphela lokumkanikazi ngaphezulu kwesiqwenga esiqhelekileyo kukukwazi ukushukuma ubambe ubuso emva nangaphambili.

    Amanenekazi aseRussia 

    Utshintsho kuphela kwimithetho esemthethweni kukuba ukudubula akunyanzelekanga kwaye inyani, kwimeko yothotho, ukuba isiqwenga sidlula kumqolo wokugqibela, siya kunyuselwa sibe yikumkanikazi kwaye siya kuqhubeka. umdlalo njengendlovukazi.

    Abafazi baseTurkey

    Ngokuqinisekileyo lolona hlobo lwamanenekazi emveli.

    Sebenzisa ideshibhodi Isibhozo esiphindwe kasibhozo. Umdlali ngamnye unamaqhekeza alishumi elinesithandathu kwaye uwabeke ekuqaleni kumqolo wesibini nowesithathu osondeleyo kubo.

    • Iziqwenga ziyahamba mzobo, ecaleni okanye ujonge phambili, kodwa ungajonganga ngasemva.
    • Ikwabanjelwe ijonge phambili okanye ijonge emacaleni. Isiqwenga esibambekayo siyafumana junto kulowo wawukhe wahlutha ngaphambili, icinezelwa kwangoko (kuyo yonke intshukumo, hayi esiphelweni sayo).
    • Xa isiqwenga sifikelela kumqolo ongezantsi uba ngukumkanikazi.
    • IiQueens zingahambisa izikwere ezininzi ezingenanto njengoko zifuna bajonge phambili, bajonge emva okanye bajonge emacaleni.
    • Ukubanjwa okwenziwe nguKumkanikazi kuyafana ncam neziqwenga eziqhelekileyo, ngaphandle kokuba ukwazi ukutsiba ngomgca wezikwere ezingenanto de ufike kwisiqwenga esithinjiweyo.
    • Nanini na kunokwenzeka, Ukubanjwa kunyanzelekile kwaye kufuneka kwenziwe ukususa iziqwenga zabadlali abaninzi kangangoko kunokwenzeka.
    • Uloyiso lwenziwa ngokubamba ngalinye lamaqhekeza omchasi, limenze angakwazi ukuhamba okanye limshiye, ubukhulu becala, lijongana noKumkanikazi.

    Ukuphulukana nokuphumelela

    Umahluko apho imigaqo ifana ngokufanayo nomdlalo osemthethweni, kodwa kolu umahluko, ophelelwa ziingceba uyaphumelela. Umdlali, ke, kufuneka anike iziqwenga zakhe kumchasi ngokukhawuleza.

    Ummiselo wamaLadies asemthethweni

    Umdlalo kunye nabadlali

    1. Amanenekazi ngumdlalo wengqondo idlalwe phakathi kwabantu ababini.
    2. Ngokwenkcazo, aba bantu ngabadlali.

    Yenza izinto

    3. Umdlalo wabavavanyi idlalwe kwibhodi yesikwere, yahlulwe yaziikwere ezilinganayo eziyi-100, ukukhanya kukunye nokumnyama.

    1. Idlalwa kwizindlu ezimnyama, ezibizwa izindlu ezisebenzayo.
    2. Imigca ye-oblique eyenziwe zizikwere ezimnyama ziyi-diagonals, enetotali eyi-17 iyonke. enkulu idiagonal.
    3. Ibhodi ibekwe phakathi kwabadlali, ukuze idiagonal enkulu iqale ngasekhohlo komdlali ngamnye, ke isikwere sokuqala ngasekhohlo komdlali ngamnye simnyama.

    4. Ibhodi ebekwe ngolu hlobo ine amagama alandelayo:

    1. Bases: emacaleni ebhodi phambi kwabadlali okanye iipleyiti zesithsaba.
    2. IifayileIikholamu ezisecaleni.
    3. Izitya: Imigca ethe tyaba enezikwere ezi-5 ezimnyama.
    4. Iikholamu: imigca ethe nkqo enezikwere ezi-5 ezimnyama.

    5. Ngendibano, Iibhokisi ezimnyama zibhalwe ngobuchule ukusuka ku-1 ukuya ku-50 (Ukubhalwa kwemanoury). Oku kufakwa kwamanani akuyi kuprintwa kwitreyi. Ukujonga kwibhodi ngaphambili, amanani afakwayo aqala ukusuka ekhohlo ukuya ekunene, ukuqala kwisikwere sokuqala esimnyama kwibhola enqamlezileyo ephezulu kwaye iphele kwindawo yokugqibela emnyama kumnqamlezo ongezantsi (Umzobo I).

    Ungaqinisekisa ukuba:

      1. Izindlu ezihlanu ezimnyama kwiziseko okanye kwiipleyiti zokuthanjiswa zifumana amanani 1 ukuya ku-5 kunye no-46 ukuya ku-50.
      2. Iibhokisi ezintlanu ezimnyama ezitafileni, okanye kwiikholamu zokuqala nezokugqibela, zibhalwe amanani 6, 16, 26, 36 kunye no-46 ngasekhohlo, kunye no-5, 15, 25, 35 kunye no-45 ngasekunene.
      3. Izindlu ezimnyama nezigqithileyo kwi-diagonal enkulu zibizwa ii-angles zebhodi.

    6. Umdlalo weHlabathi wabaHloli udlalwa ngamatye angama-20 amhlophe okanye acacileyo kwaye 20 amatye amnyama okanye amnyama.

    7. Phambi kokuqala komdlalo, i Amatye amnyama angama-20 ahlala kwizikwere ukusuka kwi-1 ukuya kwi-20, ngamatye amhlophe ukusuka kwi-31 ukuya kwi-50. Izikwere ezisuka kwi-21 kuye kwi-30 ziya kuba simahla (Umzobo 2).

    Ukuhamba kweeNxalenye

    8. Isiqwenga ngu i-generic denomination yamatye kunye nenenekazi.

    9. Ngokuxhomekeka ekubeni ngamatye okanye ukumkanikazi, iziqwenga ziyahamba kwaye zithatha iimilo ezahlukeneyo. Ukuhamba kwegumbi ukusuka kwelinye indlu ukuya kwelinye kuthiwa "nikela".

    10. Inyathelo lokuqala lihlala lilinge lomqhubi omhlophe. Abadlali bayadlala ngamanye amaqhekeza abo, intshukumo enye ngexesha.

    11. Ilitye kufuneka liqhubele phambili, kwidayagonal, Ukusuka kwindlu apho ihleli khona kwindlu yasimahla kumgaqo olandelayo.

    12. Ilitye elifikelele kwisithsaba kwaye lahlala apho ekupheleni kwentshukumo lonyuselwa ukuba likumkanikazi. Ukuxhonywa kwelitye kuphawulwe ngaphezulu kwelinye ilitye lombala ofanayo.

    13. Kuyacetyiswa ukuba umdlali welinye iqela yenzeka le nto yokuthweswa isithsaba.

    14. Ilitye eliqhutywa ngamanenekazi ligcina loo mgangatho, kodwa ayinakushukuma ingathweswanga sithsaba.

    15. Ukumkanikazi osandul 'ukuthweswa isithsaba kufuneka alinde de umdlali welinye iqela adlale kube kanye phambi kokuba enze umdlalo

    Ukumkanikazi unokuhamba ukusuka kwelinye icala ukuya kwelinye, ukusuka kwindlu abekwe kuyo ukuya nakweyiphi na, ngokuzikhethela kwakhe, kwidayagonal ahlala kuyo akhululeke.

      1. Ukuhamba kweqhekeza kuthathwa njengokuphelileyo xa umdlali eyikhuphile emva kokuyihambisa.
      2. Ukuba umdlali owenza intshukumo uchukumisa esinye seziqwenga somdlalo wakhe, unyanzelekile ukuba awuhambise.
      3. Ukuba ilitye elichukumisiweyo okanye elihambayo alikakhululwa, kuvunyelwe ukulibeka kwenye indlu, ukuba kunokwenzeka.
      4. Umdlali onentshukumo onqwenela ukubeka ngokuchanekileyo esinye okanye ezingaphezulu iibhodi ebhodini kufuneka, ngaphambi kokwenza njalo, aphephe ngokucacileyo umdlali welinye iqela ngegama elithi "AJEITO".

    Nxibelelana

    17. Ukuthatha iziqwenga ezichasayo kunyanzelekileyo kwaye kwenzeka kokubini ngaphambili nangasemva. Ukudubula okupheleleyo kubalwa njengesiqhelo esinye esidlalwayo. Ngaba akuvumelekanga zithwale iziqwenga ngokwazo.

    Ukuba ilitye linxibelelana, linqamleze, kunye nesiqwenga esichaseneyo, emva koko kubakho isikwere esingenanto kwidayalonal enye, kufuneka utsibe isiqwenga kwaye ungene kwisikwere simahla. Isiqwenga esiphikisayo siyasuswa ebhodini. Lo msebenzi ugqibeleleyo, onokwenziwa ngaphambili okanye ngasemva, kukudubula okwenziwe lilitye.

    19. Xa ukumkanikazi kunye nesiqwenga esichaseneyo sikwi-diagonal efanayo kufutshane okanye ekude omnye komnye kwaye ubuncinci isikwere esinye esingenanto ngasemva kwesiqwenga esichaseneyo, ukumkanikazi kufuneka adlule kwisiqwenga esichaseneyo kwaye angene nakweyiphi na indawo yasimahla emva kwesiqwenga, ukhetho lwakho. Lo msebenzi uthathwa yinenekazi.

    20. Indawo ephumayo kufuneka yenziwe ngokucacileyo nangokulandelelana kwayo. Ukungabikho kwesibonakaliso esicacileyo sokudubula kuyalingana nempazamo ekufuneka ilungisiwe ngokwesicelo somchasi. Ukuthatha kuthathwa njengokugqityiwe emva kokususwa kwesikhumba okanye iindawo ezichasayo.

    21. Xa ilitye oye walibamba linxibelelene ngokunqamlezileyo nelinye icala, ngasemva kwalo kukho isikwere esingenanto, eso siqwenga sesibini masitsibe, emva koko sithabathe isithathu njalo njalo, sihlale kwisithuba esikhululekileyo emva kwesokugqibela. hamba. Iziqwenga zomchasi ezibanjiweyo emva kokugqiba intshukumo, isuswe kwangoko kwibhodi ngokunyuka okanye ukwehla komyalelo. Yonke le nto ibizwa ngokuba yityathanga lenziwe lilitye.

    22. Xa ukumkanikazi, xa ethatha, emva kokutsiba kokuqala, ekwidiagonal efanayo, kufutshane okanye kude, kwelinye ilitye elichaseneyo, elikhona ngasemva kwale ndawo okanye ngaphezulu kwezikwere ezingenanto, ukumkanikazi kufuneka adlule kwesi siqwenga sesibini, emva koko isithathu njalo njalo kwaye uhlala kwindawo yasimahla, ekukhetheni kwakho, emva kwesiqwenga sokugqibela esifakiweyo.

    Iziqwenga zomchasi ezithinjiweyo emva koko, emva kokugqiba intshukumo, zisuswe kwangoko kwibhodi ngokunyuka okanye ukuhla komyalelo. Olu tyando lutyando olwenziwe lelo nenekazi.

    23. Kwityathanga kuqatshelwe tsiba izindlu.

    24. Kwityathanga, uvunyelwe ukuba udlule kwisikwere esingenanto ngaphezu kwesinye, kodwa isiqwenga esiphikisayo sinokutsiba kube kanye.

    25. Kudutyulwa ngetyathanga kufuneka kwenziwe ngokucacileyo, qhekeka ngesiqwengana, utsibe ngokutsiba, kude kufike indawo yokugqibela. Ukungabikho kwembonakalo ecacileyo yokudubula kuyalingana nempazamo ekufuneka ilungisiwe xa kucelwa umdlali welinye iqela.

    Ukuhamba kwesiqwenga ngexesha lokudutyulwa kuthathwa njengokugqityiwe xa umdlali uye wawisa iqhekezaNokuba kusekupheleni okanye embindini wentshukumo.

    27. Amaqhekeza athathiweyo angasuswa kuphela kwitreyi emveni kokuba ukudubula kwetyathanga kugqityiwe ngokupheleleyo. Iziqwenga ezithathiweyo ziyasuswa ngokukhawuleza xa intshukumo iphela kwaye ekunyukeni okanye ekuhleni apho bexhuma khona,

    Ngaphandle kweziphazamiso. Ukupheliswa okungalawulekiyo kwamaqhekeza afakiweyo kulingana nempazamo ekufuneka ilungisiwe xa kucelwa umdlali welinye iqela.

    28. Ukupheliswa kwamaqhekeza kuthathwa njengokugqibeleleyo xa umdlali esusa iziqwenga zokugqibela okanye xa ukwenziwa komsebenzi kuyekile.

    29. Ukuthatha amaqhekeza amaninzi kangangoko kwisokethi yesokethi kunyanzelekile. Ekusebenziseni lo mthetho, ukumkanikazi akabeki phambili okanye anyanzelise naluphi na uxanduva. Kwidubulo, inenekazi kunye nelitye zikulingana ngokulinganayo.

    30. Ukuba iziqwenga eziza kuthathwa, ngeendlela ezimbini nangaphezulu, ziyalingana ngenani, umdlali ukhululekile ukuba akhethe nokuba kukodwa kwezi zinto zinokwenzeka, nokuba lilitye okanye ukumkanikazi, kubanjiso olunye okanye oluninzi.

    31. Iqinisekisiwe ngomhla Isiqendu 3.5Ilitye elityhutyhwe ngetyathanga lidlula kuphela kwenye yezindlu ze-crossbar coronation echaseneyo, ekugqibeleni kokubanjwa kuselitye.

    Izitenxo

    32. Ukuba ngexa lomdlalo kufunyaniswe ukuba ibhodi ibekwe ngokungachanekanga, kuthathelwa ingqalelo inqaku 2.4, umdlalo kufuneka urhoxisiwe kwaye uqalise kwakhona.

    33. Izibonelelo zenqaku 2.8 kufuneka iqinisekiswe ngaphambi kokuqala komdlalo. Nakuphi na ukungalunganga okufumaneke ngexesha lomdlalo kusonjululwe njengenqaku 5.4.

    34. Nasiphi na isiqwenga esikwisikwere esingasebenziyo (selubala) ayisebenzi kwaye inokuphinda isetyenziswe kwakhona ngokwento 5.4.

    35. Ukuba umdlali wenze enye yezitenxo zilandelayo, kuphela umdlali welinye iqela unelungelo lokuthatha isigqibo sokuba ngaba isitenxo eso kufuneka silungiswe okanye sigcinwe. Izitenxo:

    36. Dlala iintshukumo ezimbini zilandelelana.

    37. Yenza intshukumo engaqhelekanga ye ilitye okanye inenekazi.

    38. Dlala eyakho iziqwenga kunye nokudlala enye.

    39. Buyela umva ube mnye ugqatso lwenziwe.

    40. Dlala isiqwenga somdlali welinye iqela.

    41. Dlala isiqwenga xa kunokwenzeka ukubamba.

    42. Susa iziqwenga zomchasi okanye ibhodi yakho ngaphandle kwesizathu.

    43. Thatha inani elingaphantsi okanye elingaphezulu kwiziqwengana kunokuba umisela umthetho.

    44. Yima phambi kokuphela kwesithinteli setyathanga.

    45. Susa isiqwenga seplati, esimiswe ngokungaqhelekanga, ngaphambi kokuba iplagi iphele.

    46. ​​Susa, emva kokubanjwa, lingaphantsi kwenani lamaqhekeza athathiweyo.

    47. Susa, emva kokubanjwa, iinxalenye ezingakhange zithathwe.

    48. Yeka ukutsala iinxalenye kwisokethi.

    49. Emva kokubanjwa, susa elinye okanye angaphezulu amalungu akho.

    50. Ukuba, ngenxa yesizathu esenzekileyo, kukho utshintsho okanye ukuphelisa indawo ekudlaleni, le nyani, eqinisekiswe ngelo xesha, ayinakuthathwa njengesitenxo.

    51. Ukuba umdlali uyala ukuthobela imigaqo esemthethweni yomdlalo, Umchasi unelungelo lokunyanzelisa.

    52. Naliphina inyathelo elithathwa ngumchasi womdlali owenze isitenxo okanye owalayo ukuthobela imigaqo esemthethweni yomdlalo ulingana nokwamkela imeko. Ngale ndlela, ilungelo lokulungiswa liphela.

    53. Ulungiso olungaphelelanga lwe- isitenxo okanye ukwaphula umthetho.

    Kwiluphu

    53. Umdlalo uthathelwa ingqalelo njengeqhina xa indawo inye iboniswa okwesithathu kwaye lo mdlali unoxanduva lokuhamba.

    54. Kuyaqinisekiswa ukuba ngexesha Iintshukumo ezingama-25 ezilandelelanayo, kuphela ngabahloli bokuhamba abenziweyo, ngaphandle kokuthatha okanye ukuhambisa ilitye, umdlalo uthathwa njengokutsalwa.

    55. Ukuba akukho ziqwenga zingaphezu kwesithathu, iziqwenga ezibini kunye nelitye elinye, isiqwenga esinye kunye namatye amabini ngokuchasene nesiqwenga, okokugqibela kuya kuqwalaselwa njengeqhina emva kwentshukumo ezilishumi.

    Ukuphela kookumkanikazi ababini, ukumkanikazi kunye nelitye okanye ukumkanikazi ngokuchasene nokumkanikazi, ithathwa njenge tie emva kobuninzi beentshukumo ezintlanu.

    Isiphumo

    77. Iziphumo zomdlalo zineziphumo ezibini:

    1.  Uloyiso lweqabane, kwaye ngenxa yokoyiswa komnye.
    2. Bopha xa kungekho mdlali ophumeleleyo.

    78. Umdlali uyaphumelela xa umdlali welinye iqela:

        1. Umdlalo oshiyekileyo.
        2. Ukuhamba, awunakudlala.
        3. Ulahlekelwe zizo zonke iziqwenga.
        4. Uyala ukuthobela imigaqo.

    79. Iqhina liyenzeka xa:

    1. Amaqabane abhengeza ngesivumelwano.
    2. Ukusebenzisa amalungiselelo kwinqaku 6.
    3. Xa kungekho mdlali unokuphumelela.

    Isichazi

    80. Ngokuthabatha amanani ukusuka ku-1 ukuya ku-50, ngokungqinelana nenqaku 2.6., Kuyenzeka ukuba kugcinwe ukuhamba kweenxalenye, ukuhamba ngokuhamba, kokubini kumnyama nokumhlophe, ukurekhoda umdlalo uphela.

    81. Ukukhutshelwa kwentshukumo kufuneka kwenziwe ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

    1. Inombolo yokuqala yendlu yenxalenye elandelwa linani lendlu yokuqala yenxalenye.
    2. La manani mabini alandelwa ngumgama (-) yentshukumo elula.
    3. Kwimeko yokuthatha amanani baya kwahlulwa ngu (x).

    Iimpawu eziqhelekileyo

    82. Ukuthetha ngokucacileyo, le miqondiso iqhelekileyo isetyenziswa ukubonisa:

        1. Uhambo: -
        2. Ukuhamba: x
        3. Ukudlala kakuhle okanye intshukumo eyomeleleyo:!
        4. Isithembiso esifanelekileyo okanye esomeleleyo: !!
        5. Isithembiso esibuthathaka okanye esibi 😕
        6. Isibonelelo esibuthathaka kakhulu okanye esibi:??

    Ulawulo lwexesha

    83. Kungavunyelwana ukuba kumdlalo ngamnye umdlali unyanzelekile yenza inani elithile leentshukumo ngaphakathi kwexesha elimiselweyo.

    84. Kule meko, abadlali kufuneka:

        1. Nxiba iwotshi ekhethekileyo yokhuphiswano.
        2. Rekhoda intshukumo emva kokuhamba, Kumnyama nomhlophe, ikhosi epheleleyo yomdlalo.

    85. A Umda wexesha lomdlalo uphela.

    86. Kule meko, ukusetyenziswa kukhuphiswano lwewotshi kunyanzelekile, kodwa inqaku alifuneki.

    87. Ukunxiba umlindo ilawulwa yimigaqo nemimiselo yokhuphiswano.

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