I-Chess

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    I-Chess: Idlalwa njani inyathelo ngenyathelo 🙂

    Ukudlala i-Chess kwi-intanethi simahla, landela le miyalelo inyathelo ngenyathelo:

    1 nyathelo. Vula isikhangeli sakho osithandayo kwaye uye kwiwebhusayithi yomdlalo we-Emulator.

    2 nyathelo. Nje ukuba ungene kwiwebhusayithi, umdlalo sele uza kuboniswa kwiscreen. Kufuneka kuphela ukudlala umdlalo.

    Inyathelo le-3. Iqonga likuvumela ukuba ukhethe phakathi kokudlala ngerobhothi okanye ukudlala ngomnye umntu onani. Ngaba "Yongeza okanye susa isandi", khetha"Inqanaba lokudlala”Beka umfanekiso kwi"isikrini esigcweleyo"kwaye ulungile!.

    Inyathelo le-4. Injongo yakho iya kuba kukushiya inkosi ngaphandle kwayo nayiphi na intshukumo enokwenzeka, uhlala ukhumbula imigaqo yomdlalo. UKUYA

    Inyathelo le-5. Emva kokugqiba umdlalo, cofa useto ukuze udlale kwakhona.

    Jonga kwakhona i- Imigaqo esemthethweni yeChess ukuba ufuna ukwazi ifayile ye- ummiselo osemthethweni wamazwe aphesheya yalo mdlalo uthandwayo.

    Yintoni i-Chess?rey

    I-Chess yi umdlalo webhodi ukonwabisa kunye nokhuphiswano lwabadlali ababini. Iyenziwa kwibhodi yesikwere kwaye yahlulwe yangamabala angama-64, ngokunye umnyama nomhlophe. Kwelinye icala kukho iziqwenga ezili-16 ezimhlophe kwelinye icala kukho iziqwenga ezimnyama.

    Umdlali ngamnye unelungelo lokuhamba kube kanye ngexesha. Injongo yomdlalo kukujonga umdlali welinye iqela.

    Ngumdlalo ofuna oko ingqiqo kunye nesicwangciso-qhinga, ayibandakanyi ithamsanqa, ngaphandle kwemizobo yemibala ekuqaleni komdlalo.

    ChessboardTorre

    Ibhodi yechess inayo Izikwere ezingama-64 zisasazwe kwiikholamu ezisi-8 nkqo kunye nemiqolo esi-8 (ethe tye), Isikwere ngasinye sinezikwere ezisi-8. Izindlu ezinye zimnyama kwaye zilula. Isikwere sokuqala kwicala lasekhohlo lebhodi kufuneka sibe sisikwere esimnyama kunye nesikwere sokugqibela ekunene isikwere esimhlophe.

    Ikholamu nganye ichongwa ngoonobumba abaqala ukusuka A ukuya ku-H, Ngelixa imiqolo ichongiwe ngenani ukusuka 1 ukuya ku-8 . Ngale ndlela, isikwere ngasinye sikhethwe ngoonobumba kunye nenombolo ehambelana nekholamu kunye nomqolo (a1, b6, f5, njl.). Le yi inkqubo yokuhlela esemgangathweni kukhuphiswano olusemthethwenis.

    Ibhodi yechess

    Iziqwenga zechessUBhishophu

    Umdlali ngamnye unayo Icandelo le-16, yahlulwe yaba kukukhanya nobumnyama. Iziqwenga, ngokwexabiso:

    Iziqwenga zechess

    Qaphela: Abanye abadlali bechess abayithathi i-pawn njengeziqwenga. Amaxabiso esiziqwengana anokuhluka, nokuba kuxhomekeke kwindawo yesiqwenga ebhodini.

    Ekuqaleni komdlalo, iziqwenga zihanjiswa ebhodini ngolu hlobo lulandelayo: iziqwenga ezimhlophe zibekwe kumqolo woku-1, ikhuselwe yi Uluhlu lweepawuni kumqolo 2Ngelixa iziqwenga ezimnyama zikumqolo we-8 kunye neepawuthi zakhe zikwisi-7. Qaphela ngezantsi:

    Itshesi enamanani

    Abaqalayo bahlala bedida isikhundla seKumkani kunye neKumkanikazi, kodwa ukwenza lula, khumbula nje loo nto ukumkanikazi uhlala eqala umdlalo ngokuhlala kwisikwere sombala ofanayo (ukumkanikazi omhlophe kwiNdlu eNtshonalanga, ukumkanikazi omnyama kwiNdlu emnyama).

    Ngoko ke, ukumkanikazi omhlophe uhlala kwisikwere D1, ngelixa ukumkanikazi omnyama ehlala kwisikwere D8. Olu seto lusetyenziselwa ukunqanda uKumkani ukuba ahlaselwe kanye ekuvulekeni, njengoko bekunokwenzeka ukuba uKumkanikazi ophikisayo ubekwe kwifayile enye.

    Ibhodi yahlulwe yangamaphiko amabini:

    • Iphiko leKumkanikazi
    • Iphiko likakumkani

    Iziqwenga zithiywe ngegama lephiko lakhe. Iinqaba ngaphakathi a1 y a8, umzekelo, bayabizwa INqaba-yeNkosikazi, ngelixa iinqaba zingena h1 kunye h8, UTorre-Rei. Kuyafana nangamanye amaqhekeza, kwaye nangamaqokobhe, athiywe ngesiqwenga abasikhuselayo. I-pawn in e2 ngukumkani weepawuthi, i-pawn in d2, ukumkanikazi wenqanawa f2 ibizwa ngokuba ngukumkani wepawn-bhishophu kunye nepawn in c2, ukumkanikazi we-pawns-bishop, njalo njalo.

    Imbali yeChessipheyiji

    Imbali ye-Chess

    I-Chess ngumdlalo omdala kangangokuba, kuyo yonke iminyaka yobukho bayo, kwakukho amabali ahlukeneyo ahambelana nemvelaphi yawo.

    Imvelaphi yeChess eIndiya

    Ibali lokuqala elixeliweyo kwihlabathi liphela lenzeka kwi Indiya . Kwakukho idolophu encinci ebizwa UTaligana, kwaye ekuphela konyana wamagorha URajah wasweleka edabini eligazi.

    URajah wawela kuxinzelelo kwaye akazange akwazi ukujongana nelahleko yonyana wakhe. Ingxaki enkulu yayikukuba u-rajah akafanga nje kancinci kancinci, kodwa waye wabutyeshela nobukumkani bakhe. Kwakungomcimbi wexesha ngaphambi kokuba ubukumkani buwe ngokupheleleyo.

    Ukubona ukuwa kobukumkani, ibrahmin egama linguLahur Sessa, ngolunye usuku Uye kukumkani wamnika ibhodi enezikwere ezingama-64, ezimnyama namhlophe, Ukongeza kumaqhekeza aliqela amele ngokunyanisekileyo imikhosi yomkhosi wakhe, ohamba ngeenyawo, abakhweli-mahashe, amatanki, abaqhubi beendlovu, i-vizier ephambili kunye no-Rajah ngokwakhe.

    Umfundisi uxelele u-rajah ukuba umdlalo onjalo unokuwuthomalalisa umoya wakhe kwaye unganyanga uxinzelelo.. Ngapha koko, nantoni na eyathethwa nguBrahman, yenzekile, iRajah yalawula ubukumkani bayo kwakhona, isusa ingxaki kwindlela yakhe.

    Kwakungachazeki ukuba yonke into yenzeke njani, kunye nebhodi enye enamaqhekeza anoxanduva lokuphelisa usizi luka-rajah. Njengomvuzo, i-brahmin yanikwa ithuba lokucela into eyifunayo. Ekuqaleni, wasikhaba eso sicelo, kuba wayecinga ukuba akafaneleki kweso sipho, kodwa ngokunyanzelwa nguRajah, wenza isicelo esilula.

     

    I-brahmin icele nje ingqolowa yengqolowa kwisikwere sokuqala ebhodini, zimbini ezesibini, zine zesithathu, ezisibhozo zesine njalo njalo ukuya kwisakhelo sokugqibela. URajah wayehlekisiwe yi-naivete yesicelo.

    Nangona kunjalo, isicelo esithobekileyo seBrahmin sasingathobekanga kangako. Emva kokwenza izibalo ezahlukeneyo zokuba ingakanani ingqolowa abaza kumnika yona, bafumanisa ukuba kuya kuthatha isivuno sonke sobukumkani iminyaka engamawaka amabini engummangaliso ukufezekisa isicelo sobubingeleli.

    Echukunyiswe bubukrelekrele be-brahmin, u-rajah wammema ukuba abe yi-vizier eyintloko (uhlobo loMphathiswa, umcebisi ku-rajah) wobukumkani, kwaye uSesa wamxolela ityala lakhe elikhulu kwingqolowa.

    Ngapha koko, into eyenziwa yi-brahmin kwi-rajah yayingengomdlalo we-chess, yayiyiyo chaturanga, Enye yezinto eziphambili zomdlalo wechess wale mihla.

    Imvelaphi yeentsomi

    Elinye ithuba elikhulu elivela kumabali ahlukeneyo malunga nemvelaphi yechess yile Ares, ifazwe yezithixo, Ngewenze ibhodi ukuvavanya amaqhinga akhe emfazwe (ezazinqongophele kakhulu, njengoko uAres wayengaziwa ukuba namaqhinga kumadabi akhe, wayenoburhalarhume, ehlasela ngaphandle kokuchaneka ixesha elininzi).

    Nangona kunjalo, iqhekeza ngalinye lebhodi lalimele inxalenye yomkhosi wakhe, kwaye lenza njalo, de uAres waba nonyana onokufa, kwaye wadlulisela kuye izinto ezisisiseko zomdlalo. Ukusukela ngoko ukuya phambili, umdlalo ubuya kuza kulwazi ngabantu abafayo.

    Ukuvela kweChess kwimbali

    Ku yaziwa ukuba kwi-1450 y 1850, I-chess yaqala ukuba neenguqu ezibonakalayo ngokunxulumene noko sikwaziyo namhlanje. Kwakungeli xesha apho iziqwenga ezahlukeneyo zafumana iintshukumo esizaziyo namhlanje, ewe, zonke ezi ntshukumo kunye neziqwenga ezivela eChaturanga.

    Indlovu (owandulela ubishophu wale mihla) wayenokuhamba kuphela kwimitsi emibini edibeneyo. I-vizier (owandulela ukumkanikazi) yindlu nje kwiidigonal. Abahambi ngeenyawo abakwazanga ukuhambisa izikwere ezimbini kuhambo lwabo lokuqala kwaye ukuphosa kwakungekabikho. Iimpawu Banokunyuselwa kuphela kwi-vizier, elilelona qhekeza libuthathaka, emva kwenqina, ngenxa yokuhamba kancinci.

    Imithetho ye-chess esiyaziyo namhlanje yaqala ukwenziwa kuyo 1475, awuqinisekanga ukuba esi siqalo senzeke phi. Abanye ababhali-mbali bayahluka phakathi ISpain ne-Itali.

    Kwakungelo xesha apho abahamba ngeenyawo bafumana ukuhamba esikwaziyo namhlanje, okubandakanya ukuhambisa izikwere ezimbini ekuhambeni kwabo kokuqala nokuthatha abanye abahamba ngeenyawo dlula .

    Amakhosikazi echess

    Ngelo xesha, iintshukumo ezintsha ze Oobhishophu nokumkanikazi Baye bachazwa kwaye, okona kubaluleke kakhulu, ukumkanikazi waba yeyona nto ibalulekileyo kulo mdlalo, ingoyena mntu ukwaziyo ukuya naphi na kwaye uye phambili okanye ubuye umva kwizikwere ezininzi njengoko wayefuna.

    Iintshukumo zamanye amaqhekeza, kunye neminye imithetho ebandakanya yonke i-chess, yaguqulwa kuphela ngokusesikweni embindini wenkulungwane. XIX, kwaye le mithetho isekhona nanamhlanje.

    Iindidi zeChess

    Kwabo badlala umdlalo wechess njengemidlalo yokuzonwabisa, okanye kumarhamente kwezemidlalo, Umdlalo wechess uhlala udlalwa phakathi kwabadlali ababini kwibhodi enye.

    Nangona kunjalo, kulo mdlalo, umdlalo awusoloko usenzeka ngale ndlela, kwaye kukho iindlela ezininzi kunokuba ungacinga nje ekuqaleni. Ukuqala ngobude bomdlalo, onokwahluka ukusuka kwimizuzu embalwa ukuya kwiiyure okanye nakwiintsuku zokuba kubhengezwe ngaphezulu, ngamanye amaxesha ngaphandle kokubulawa komdlali.

    Imidlalo edlalwa ziingcali phantse zihlala zisebenzisa iiwotshi ezilawula ixesha lomdlali ngamnye. Ngamanye amaxesha umdlali angadlala ngokuchasene nabadlali abangaphezulu kwesinye kwiibhodi ezahlukeneyo. Iitafile azihlali zisikwere kwaye Kukho iindlela zetshesi ezinamaqhekeza angama-36. Ungadlala umdlalo wechess ungayibonanga ibhodi!

    Ngoku siza kubona ifayile ye- iindlela ezahlukeneyo zechess kunye namathuba amaninzi okwenza lo mdlalo ubenomdla ngakumbi kwaye ucelomngeni.

    I-chess pawns

    Umdlalo weKlasi weChess

    Nguye imowudi yechess yemveli, apho abadlali badibana ubuso ngobuso phambi kwebhodi.

    Engabonakaliyo

    Yindlela apho abadlali basebenzise ngayo iikhompyuter eziqhagamshelwe kwi-Intanethi okanye kuthungelwano lwasekhaya, ukulandela imigaqo efanayo ne- ichess yemveli.

    Umbane (Blitz)

    Umahluko wechess yemveli apho kukho Imizuzu eli-15 ubuninzi bexesha lomdlali ngamnye. Kule ndlela, abadlali abaqeqeshiweyo akufuneki babhale phantsi iibhidi zabo.

    Umdlalo we Chess ngaxeshanye

    Kumdlalo wechess ngaxeshanye, Umdlali wechess udlala ngokuchasene nabadlali abangaphezulu kwesinye kwiibhodi ezahlukeneyo.

    Ukungaboni

    Kule ndlela umdlali akenzi Jonga ibhodiNokuba usebenzisa ukuthengisa okanye kwigumbi elahlukileyo. Umdlalo oyimfama Isekwe kwimemori yomdlali wechess, ekufuneka ehombise indawo yebhodi kwaye enze uhlalutyo lwengqondo.

    Iposi Chess

    El iposi okanye ileta chess, njengoko isaziwa njalo, yi Imo yechess iqheliselwa kude, ngembalelwano. Ekuqaleni, abadlali bechess bathumela izibonelelo zabo ngeeleta okanye ngeeposikhadi, kodwa ngexesha kunye nenkqubela phambili kwitekhnoloji, Kule mihla kunokwenzeka ukuba usebenzise ii-imeyile, ukunciphisa kakhulu ixesha lokulinda impendulo.

    Isaziso ngale ndlela sahlukile kwimidlalo yechess, ikakhulu ngenxa yokuba iqhutywa ngabantu kwihlabathi liphela, izithethi zeelwimi ezahlukeneyo. Epistolary chess iye yayo umanyano lwamazwe aphesheya(ICCF).

     

    Imigaqo esemthethweni yeChess

    IMITHETHO ESISISEKO YOMDLALO

    1. Iinjongo zomdlalo wechess.

    1.1 Umdlalo wechess udlalwa phakathi kwabachasi ababini abashenxisa iziqwenga kwibhodi yesikwere ebizwa ngokuba 'ibhodi chess'. Yena Umdlali oneziqwenga ezimhlophe uqala umdlalo. Umdlali kuthiwa 'unethuba lokudlala' xa kusenziwa intshukumo yomchasi wakhe. (Jonga inqaku 6.7)

    1.2 Injongo yomdlali ngamnye yile ukubeka ukumkani welinye iqela 'phantsi kohlaselo' ngendlela yokuba iqela elichasayo lingashukumi. Umdlali ophumeza le njongo kuthiwa ubulala inkosi yomchasi kwaye awuphumelele umdlalo. Akuvumelekile ukushiya okanye ukubeka inkosi yakho phantsi kohlaselo, okanye ukubamba ukumkani welinye iqela. Umchasi owayekunye noKumkanikazi ukuba uphumelele umdlalo.

    1.3 Umdlalo ngu iqhina ukuba ikhokelela kwisikhundla apho akukho mdlali unethuba lokujonga.

    2. Indawo yokuqala yamaqhekeza ebhodini.

    2.1 I-chessboard yenziwe ngumnatha we 8 × 8 nezikwere ezingama-64 ukukhanya okulinganayo (izikwere 'abamhlophe') kwaye kumnyama (izikwere'abamnyama').

    Ibhodi ibekwe phakathi kwabadlali ngendlela yokuba Isikwere kwikona ekunene komdlali ngamnye mhlophe.

    2.2 Ekuqaleni komdlalo, umdlali unamaqhekeza anemibala ekhanyayo eli-16 (iziqwenga "ezimhlophe"); enye inamaqhekeza amnyama ali-16 (amaqhekeza amnyama “):

    La malungu ami ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

    • Inkosi emhlophe, idla ngokubonakaliswa ngophawu.
    • Inenekazi elimhlophe, iboniswe luphawu.
    • Iinqaba ezimbini ezimhlophe, iboniswe luphawu.
    • Oobhishophu ababini abamhlophe, iboniswe luphawu.
    • Amahashe amabini amhlophe, iboniswe luphawu.
    • Iimbumba ezisibhozo ezimhlophe, iboniswe luphawu.
    • Inkosi emnyama, iboniswe luphawu.
    • Inenekazi elimnyama, iboniswe luphawu.
    • Iinqaba ezimbini ezimhlophe, iboniswe luphawu.
    • Oobhishophu ababini abamnyama, iboniswe luphawu.
    • Amahashe amabini amnyama, iboniswe luphawu.

    2.3 Indawo yokuqala yamaqhekeza ebhodini yile ilandelayo:

    2.4 Izindlu ezisibhozo ezilungiswe nkqo zibizwa ngokuba 'ziikholamu'. Izindlu ezisibhozo ezilungiswe ngokuthe tye zibizwa ngokuba 'yimigca'. Umgca ochanekileyo wezikwere zombala ofanayo, usuka kwelinye icala lebhodi uye kwelinye elikufutshane, ubizwa ngokuba yi 'diagonal'.

    3. Ukuhamba kwamaqhekeza.

    3.1 Akuvumelekile ukuhambisa isiqwenga kwisikwere esele sihlulwe lelinye icandelo lombala ofanayo. Ukuba isiqwenga sihanjiswa kwisikwere esele sihleli kwisiqwenga somdlali welinye iqela, le yokugqibela iyabanjwa kwaye isuswe ebhodini njengenxalenye yentshukumo efanayo. Isiqwenga kuthiwa sihlasela isiqwenga somdlali welinye iqela ukuba sinokubamba kwibala, ngokuhambelana namaNqaku 3.2 ukuya

    Iqhekeza lithathwa njengelihlasela isikwere, nokuba isikwere eso siyathintelwa ukuba singahambeli kwesi sikwere, kuba ke oko kuya kusishiya okanye kuhlasele inkosi yaso.

    3.2 Ubhishophu unokuya nakwesiphi na isikwere ecaleni kwelo diagonal.

    3.3 Ubishophu unokuya nakwesiphi isikwere ecaleni kwefayile okanye kumqolo okuwo.

    3.4 Ukumkanikazi angaya nakweyiphi na isikwere ecaleni kwefayile, umqolo, okanye idiagonal ekuyo.

    3.5 Xa usenza ezi ntshukumo, ubishophu, rook okanye ukumkanikazi akakwazi ukutsiba ngaphezulu kwawo nawaphi na amaqhekeza endlela yabo.

    3.6 Ihashe linokuhamba liye kwesinye sezikwere esikufutshane nesikuyo. Qaphela ukuba isikwere apho i-knight ingahambela khona ayikho kwikholamu efanayo, kumqolo, okanye kwi-diagonal.

    3.7 ukuya. I-pawn inokuhanjiswa kwisikwere, kwangoko phambi kwayo, kwifayile enye, engahlaliyo, okanye

    3.7.1 Ekuhambeni kwayo okokuqala, i-pawn inokuhanjiswa njengoko kukhankanyiwe ku-3.7.a; Ngenye indlela, ungahambisa izindlu ezimbini kwikholamu enye, ukuba azinabantu bobabini, okanye

    3.7.2 I-pawn inokuhamba iye kwisikwere ekuhlala kuso isiqwenga somdlali welinye icala, esithe nkqo phambi kwaso, kwifayile esondeleyo, sithimba eso siqwenga.

    3.7.3 I-pawn ehlasela isikwere esiwele ipheyiji yomchasi esele iqhubele phambili izikwere ezimbini ngokuhamba nje ukusuka kwindawo yayo yoqobo inokubamba le pakhi iphikisayo ngokungathi ishukumise isikwere esinye kuphela.

    Oku kubanjwa kunokwenziwa kuphela ekuhambeni kwangoko emva kwempumelelo esele ikhankanyiwe kwaye kubizwa ngokuba yi 'en passant' socket.

    3.7.4. Xa i-pawn ifikelela kwelona nqanaba likude xa kuthelekiswa nendawo eqala kuyo, kufuneka itshintshwe njengenxalenye yohambo olufanayo kwisikwere esinye ukumkanikazi, i-rook, ubhishophu okanye i-knight yombala ofanayo nepawn. Ukukhetha komdlali akuphelelanga kwizicatshulwa esele zifakiwe kumdlalo.

    Olu tshintshiselwano lwe-pawn lwenye into lubizwa ngokuba 'kukunyusa' kwaye isenzo sesiqwenga esitsha kwangoko.

    3.8 Zimbini iindlela ezahlukileyo zokuhambisa inkosi: yisa inkosi nakweyiphi na indlu engummelwane engakhange ihlaselwe linxalenye enye okanye ezingaphezulu zomdlali welinye iqela.

    Isenokuba njalo nangoku 'ujinga'. Le yintshukumo eyenziweyo kunye nokumkani kunye nenye yeerokki, ezinombala ofanayo kumqolo wokuqala womdlali, uthathwa njengenkosi enye eshukumayo kwaye yenziwa ngolu hlobo lulandelayo: ukumkani uyasuswa endlwini yakhe yoqobo izindlu ezimbini ezijonge kwinqaba esendlwini yakhe yoqobo, emva koko inqaba idluliselwa kwindlu esandula ukuwela ukumkani.

    (1) Ilungelo lokukhupha:

    1. ukuba ukumkani sele eshukunyisiwe, okanye
    2. nenqaba esele ihanjisiwe

    (2) Ukuphosa akukho mthethweni okwethutyana:

    1. ukuba isikwere ahleli kuso ukumkani, okanye isikwere ekufuneka edlulile kuso, okanye isikwere aza kuhlala kuso, sihlaselwa liqela elinye okanye nangaphezulu, okanye
    2. ukuba kukho naliphi na iqhekeza phakathi kwenkosi kunye nenqanawa yokuhombisa.

    3.9 Ukumkani kuthiwa uphantsi kolawulo ukuba uhlaselwe sisiqwenga esinye okanye ezingaphezulu zomchasi, nokuba ezo ziqwenga zibambekile, oko kukuthi, bayathintelwa ukuba baphume kuloo ndlu, kuba baya kushiya okanye babeke owabo ukumkani phantsi kolawulo.

    Akukho siqwenga sinokuhamba ngendlela ebhengeza okanye eshiya inkosi yaso iphantsi kolawulo.

    4. Umthetho wokuhambisa iziqwenga.

    4.1 Intshukumo nganye kufuneka yenziwe ngesandla esinye.

    4.2 Ngethuba nje evakalisa iinjongo zakhe kwangaphambili (umzekelo, esithi ndifumana "j'adoube" okanye "ndiyahlengahlengisa"), umdlali onethuba lokudlala angayifumana enye okanye ngaphezulu iziqwenga ezindlwini zakhe.

    4.3 Ngaphandle kokuba kubonelelwe kwiNqaku 4.2, ukuba umdlali olithuba lakhe lokudlala lichukumisa

    1. ngabom inye okanye ezingaphezulu iziqwenga zakhe ebhodini, kufuneka adlale isiqwenga sokuqala esichukumisiweyo esinokususwa, okanye
    1. elinye okanye ngaphezulu kweziqwenga zomchasi wakhe, kufuneka abambe isiqwenga sokuqala esichukumisiweyo, esinokubanjwa, okanye

    Inxalenye enye yombala ngamnye, kufuneka abambe isiqwenga somdlali welinye iqela ngesiqwenga sakhe okanye, ukuba oku akukho semthethweni, shenxisa okanye ubambe isiqwenga sokuqala esinokudlala okanye ukubamba. Ukuba akucaci ukuba leliphi na iqhekeza ebelidlalwe ngaphambili, isiqwenga somdlali kufuneka sithathelwe ukuba sidlalwe ngaphambi komchasi wakhe.

    4.4 Ukuba umdlali ujika:

    1. chukumisa ngabom inkosi yakho kwaye i-rook kufuneka iphose kweli phiko ukuba intshukumo isemthethweni.
    1. uchukumise ngabom i-rook emva koko kukumkani wakhe, akavumelekanga ukuba abambelele kweli phiko kule meko kwaye imeko mayilawulwe liNqaku 4.3
    1. Ngenjongo yokuphosa, ichukumisa inkosi okanye inkosi kunye ne-rook ngaxeshanye, kodwa ukuphosa ngapha akukho semthethweni, umdlali kufuneka enze enye inyathelo elisemthethweni kunye nokumkani wabo (onokuthi ubandakanye nenqaba kwelinye icala). Ukuba inkosi ayinantshukumo yomthetho, umdlali ukhululekile ukuba enze naliphi na elinye inyathelo lomthetho.
    1. ikhuthaza i-pawn, ukhetho lwesiqwenga lugqitywa kuphela xa isiqwenga sichukumisile isikwere sonyuselo.
      1. Ukuba akukho siqwenga sichukumisiweyo sinokususwa okanye sibanjwe, umdlali unokwenza naluphi na unyathelo lomthetho.
      1. Xa isiqwenga siwela endlwini, ngenxa yentshukumo yomthetho okanye inxenye yentshukumo yomthetho, ayinakushenxiselwa kwenye indlu ngoku. Intshukumo ithathwa njengegqityiweyo:
    1. kwimeko yokubanjwa, xa iqhekeza elithathiweyo lisusiwe ebhodini kwaye umdlali, emva kokubeka isiqwenga sakhe kwibala elitsha, uye wakhulula isiqwenga esithinjiweyo esandleni sakhe;
    1. kwimeko ye-castling, xa umdlali ekhuphe i-rook esandleni sakhe kwisikwere esasiwele ngaphambili ngukumkani. Xa umdlali ekhululile ukumkani esandleni, intshukumo ayizukuphunyezwa, kodwa umdlali akasenalo ilungelo lokwenza nayiphi na intshukumo ngaphandle kwenqaba kwiphiko, ukuba oku kusemthethweni;
    1. Kwimeko yokunyuselwa kwenqwelomoya, xa inqina lisusiwe ebhodini kwaye isandla somdlali sikhuphe isiqwenga esitsha emva kokuyibeka kwibala lokukhuthaza. Ukuba umdlali sele eyikhuphile i-pawn efike kwibhokisi yokunyusa yesandla sakhe, intshukumo ayikenziwa, kodwa umdlali akasenalungelo lokudlala

    umhambi ngeenyawo ukuya kwenye indlu.

    Umlinganiso uthathwa njengomthetho xa zonke iimfuno ezifanelekileyo zeCandelo lesi-3 zifezekisiwe.

    4.7 Umdlali uphulukana nelungelo lokukhalaza malunga nokwaphulwa kwenqaku lesi-4 ngumchasi, ukusukela ngalo mzuzu xa athe wachukumisa ngabom isiqwenga.

    5. Ukuphela kokuhamba

    5.1 Umdlalo uphumelele ngumdlali olawula ukumkani welinye iqela. Oku kuwuphelisa kwangoko umdlalo, ngaphandle kokuba intshukumo evelisa indawo yokujonga esemthethweni isemthethweni.

    Ukuba umdlalo uphumelele ngumdlali welinye iqela ochaza ukuba uyemka. Oku kuwuphelisa kwangoko umdlalo.

    5.2  Umdlalo uyatsalwa xa umdlali othatha ithuba engenantshukumo yomthetho kwaye inkosi yakhe ayikho phantsi kolawulo. Umdlalo kuthiwa uphele ngokumkani "warhaxwa." Oku kuwuphelisa kwangoko umdlalo lo gama intshukumo evelise indawo yesitali isemthethweni.

    1. umdlalo uyatsalwa xa kubonakala indawo apho kungekho mdlali unokujonga inkosi yomchasi ngothotho lwezinto ezisemthethweni. Umdlalo kuthiwa uphele "kwindawo efileyo." Oku kuwuphelisa kwangoko umdlalo lo gama intshukumo evelisa isikhundla isemthethweni (jonga inqaku 9.6)
    2. Umdlalo wenzeka ngesivumelwano phakathi kwabadlali ngexesha lomdlalo. Oku kuwuphelisa kwangoko umdlalo. (Jonga iNqaku 9.1)
    3. Umdlalo unokutsalwa ukuba indawo efanayo iyavela okanye ivele ebhodini ubuncinci kathathu. (Jonga iNqaku 9.2)
    4. Umdlalo unokuba ngumzobo ukuba abadlali benze i-50 yabo yokugqibela ilandelelana ngaphandle kokuhambisa naziphi na iipawn kwaye ngaphandle kokubamba. (Jonga iNqaku 9.3)

    IMIGAQO YOKHUPHISWANO

    6. Ikloko yechess

    6.1. 'Ikloko ye-Chess' ithetha iwotshi eneemonitha ezimbini, ezidityaniswe ngendlela yokuba ibe inye kuphela kubo esebenza ngexesha.

    'Iwotshi' kwiMithetho ye-Chess ithetha elinye lawona maxesha mabini. Iwotshi nganye inotolo.

    'Ukulahla kwetolo' kuthetha ukuphela kwexesha elabiweyo lomdlali.

    6.2. Xa usebenzisa iwotshi yechess, umdlali ngamnye kufuneka enze ubuncinci benani lokuhamba okanye konke ukuhamba ngexesha elinikiweyo kunye / okanye ixesha elongezelelekileyo linokwabiwa emva kwentshukumo nganye. Konke oku kufuneka kuchazwe kwangaphambili.

    Ixesha eligcinwe ngumdlali ngexesha elinye longezwa kwixesha lesithuba esilandelayo, ngaphandle kwendlela "yokulibaziseka kwexesha".

    Kwindlela ye "ukulibaziseka kwexesha", Bobabini abadlali banikwa 'ixesha lokucinga eliphambili' elithile. Umdlali ngamnye ufumana "ixesha elongeziweyo" ngokuhamba ngakunye. Ixesha eliphambili lokubala liqala kuphela emva kwexesha elimiselweyo. Ngethuba nje umdlali eyeka iwotshi yakhe ngaphambi kokuba kuphele "ixesha elimisiweyo", "ixesha eliphambili" alitshintshi, nokuba lingakanani ixesha "elimiselweyo" elisetyenzisiweyo.

    6.3 Ngokukhawuleza emva kokuba utolo luwile, iimfuno zeNqaku 6.2 kufuneka ziqinisekiswe.

    6.4 Phambi kokuqala komdlalo, kuxhomekeke kusompempe ukuba athathe isigqibo ukuba ibekwe phi iwotshi.

    6.5 Ixesha lomdlali elinamaqhekeza amhlophe kufuneka liqale ngexesha elichaziweyo lokuqala komdlalo.

    6.6 Nawuphi na umdlali ofika ebhodini emva kokuqala kweseshoni uya kuphulukana nomdlalo. Ke ngoko, ixesha lag yimizuzu engama-zero. Imigaqo yokhuphiswano inokuchaza ngenye indlela.

    Ukuba imigaqo yokhuphiswano ichaza ixesha elahlukileyo lokungabikho, oku kulandelayo kuyasebenza:

    Ukuba akukho namnye umdlali ofike ngexesha lokuqala, umdlali ophethe iziqwenga ezimhlophe kufuneka aphulukane nexesha elidlulileyo ngaphambi kokufika kwakhe, ngaphandle kokuba imigaqo yokhuphiswano iyacacisa okanye usompempe uthatha isigqibo ngenye indlela.

    6.7 Ngexesha lomdlalo, umdlali ngamnye, emva kokuhamba kwakhe ebhodini, kufuneka ayeke eyakhe iwotshi kwaye aqale iwotshi yomchasi wakhe. Umdlali kufuneka ahlale evunyelwe ukwenza ipini kwewotshi yakhe. Ukuhamba kwakho akuthathelwa ngqalelo njengokugqibeleleyo de ube ukwenzile, ngaphandle kokuba intshukumo iyaphela umdlalo (jonga amaNqaku 5.1.a, 5.2.a, 5.2.b, 5.2.c kunye no-9.6).

    Ixesha phakathi kokuhamba ebhodini kunye nokumisa iwotshi ngokwayo, kunye nokuqala kwewotshi yomchasi, lithathwa njengenxalenye yexesha elinikiweyo kumdlali.

    1. Umdlali kufuneka ayeke iwotshi yakhe ngesandla esinye enze intshukumo yakhe. Ukugcina isandla sakho kwipini yokubukela okanye ukuhambisa ngaphezulu kuyathintelwa.

    Abadlali kufuneka baphathe iwotshi yechess ngokuchanekileyo. Akuvumelekile ukuyisebenzisa ngamandla amakhulu, ukuyibamba okanye ukuyilahla. Ukusetyenziswa gwenxa kwewotshi kuya kohlwaywa ngokungqinelana neNqaku 13.4.

    1. Ukuba umdlali akakwazi kuyisebenzisa iwotshi, kufuneka anikeze umncedisi ekwenzeni lo msebenzi, ngenkxaso kasompempe. Iwotshi yakho kufuneka isethwe ngokuchanekileyo ngusompempe ngendlela efanelekileyo.
      1. Utolo luthathwa njengowileyo xa usompempe ejonge inyani okanye xa omnye wabadlali enze ibango elifanelekileyo ngayo.
      2. Ngaphandle kokuba kusetyenziswe elinye lamagatya akumaNqaku 5.1.a, 5.1.b, 5.2.a, 5.2.b, 5.2.c, umdlali ophulukene nenani elimiselweyo lokuhamba ngexesha uyakuphulukana nomdlalo. Nangona kunjalo, umdlalo uyatsalwa xa indawo ifikelelwe apho umchasi engenakho ukujonga inkosi yomchasi ngothotho lwamanyathelo asemthethweni.
      1. Inkqubo ye-. Nasiphi na isalathiso esinikwe ziiwotshi siyakuthathelwa ingqalelo ngokugqibeleleyo kungabikho nasiphi na isiphene esibonakalayo. Nayiphi na iwotshi enesiphene ebonakalayo kufuneka itshintshwe. Usompempe kufuneka athathe indawo yewotshi kwaye asebenzise ingqiqo xa ebeka ixesha eliza kuboniswa ngezandla zewotshi eziya kuthatha indawo yesiphene.

    EWE. Ukuba ngexesha lomdlalo kufunyaniswe ukuba ukubekwa kwewotshi enye okanye zombini bekungachanekanga, umdlali okanye usompempe kufuneka ayeke iiwotshi kwangoko. Usompempe kufuneka alungise amaxesha kunye nekhawuntara yeefot. Usompempe kufuneka asebenzise esona sigwebo sakhe sigqibeleleyo ukumisela imigaqo echanekileyo.

    6.8 Ukuba zombini iintolo ziyawa kwaye akunakwenzeka ukufumanisa ukuba yeyiphi ewele kuqala:

    1. umdlalo uya kuqhubeka ukuba oku kuyenzeka ngalo naliphi na ixesha lomdlalo, ngaphandle kwexesha lokugqibela.
    1. umdlalo utsaliwe ukuba uyenzeka ngexesha lomdlalo, xa onke amanyathelo ashiyekileyo kufuneka egqityiwe.

    6.9 Ukuba umdlalo ufuna ukumiswa, usompempe kufuneka amise iiwotshi.

    1. Umdlali unokumisa kuphela iiwotshi ukuze afune uncedo lukasompempe, umzekelo, xa unyuselo lwenzeka kwaye isiqwenga esifunekayo asifumaneki.
    1. Usompempe kufuneka athathe isigqibo xa umdlalo kufuneka uqaliswe kwakhona nakweyiphi na imeko.
    1. Ukuba umdlali uyeka iiwotshi efuna uncedo kusompempe, usompempe kufuneka abone ukuba ingaba umdlali unaso na isizathu sokwenza oko. Ukuba kuyacaca ukuba kwakungekho sizathu sibambekayo sokumisa iwotshi, umdlali uya kohlwaywa ngokungqinelana nenqaku le-13.4

    6.10 Ukuba isitenxo senzekile kwaye / okanye amaqhekeza kufuneka athathwe endaweni yangaphambili, usompempe kufuneka asebenzise esona sizathu sakhe sigqibeleleyo ukumisela amaxesha afumanekayo kwiiwotshi. Usompempe kufuneka, ukuba kukho imfuneko, alungelelanise inani leentshukumo eziya ngasemva.

    6.11 Kwigumbi lomdlalo: izikrini, iimonitha okanye iibhodi zodonga ziyavunyelwa, zibonisa indawo yangoku yebhodi, iintshukumo kunye nenani leentshukumo ezenziweyo, kunye neewotshi ezibonisa inani leentshukumo. Nangona kunjalo, umdlali akanakwenza naliphi na ibango ngokusekwe kulwazi oluboniswe ngale ndlela.

    7. Izitenxo

    7.1 Ukuba ngexesha lomdlalo kufunyaniswe ukuba indawo yokuqala yamaqhekeza ibingalunganga, umdlalo uya kurhoxiswa kwaye umdlalo omtsha uza kudlalwa.

    1. Ukuba, ngexesha lomdlalo, kubonakala ngathi ibhodi ibekwe ngokuchasene nemigaqo yeNqaku 2.1, umdlalo uyaqhubeka, kodwa indawo esele idlalwe kufuneka idluliselwe kwibhodi ebekwe ngokuchanekileyo.

    7.2 Ukuba umdlalo uqalile ngemibala eguqulweyo, kufuneka iqhubeke ngaphandle kokuba usompempe athathe isigqibo ngenye indlela.

    Ukuba umdlali uhambisa enye okanye ngaphezulu iziqwenga, kufuneka abuyisele indawo efanelekileyo ngexesha lakhe. Ukuba kunyanzelekile, umdlali okanye umdlali welinye iqela angalimisa ixesha abize usompempe. Usompempe angamohlwaya umdlali ohambisa iziqwenga.

    7.3 Ukuba, ngexesha lomdlalo, kufunyaniswe ukuba isenzo esingekho mthethweni sigqityiwe, kubandakanya nokusilela kwisithethe sokwazisa nge-pawn okanye ukubamba ukumkani welinye iqela, isikhundla esikhawulezileyo ngaphambi kwesitenxo kufuneka siphinde simiswe. Ukuba eso sithuba asinakuphinda sakhiwe, umdlalo kufuneka uqhubeke ukusuka kwindawo yokugqibela ebonakalayo, ngaphambi kwesitenxo. Iiwotshi kufuneka zibekwe ngokungqinelana neNqaku 6.13. Amanqaku 4.3 kunye no-4.6 asebenza kwintshukumo eyenzeka endaweni yentshukumo engekho mthethweni. Ukudlala kufuneka kuqhubeke ukusuka kwindawo ebuyiselweyo.

    Ukuba emva kokuthatha amanyathelo achazwe kwiNqaku 7.4.a, kumanyathelo amabini okuqala ngokungekho mthethweni ngumdlali, usompempe kufuneka anike iqela elichasayo imizuzu emibini eyongezelelweyo kwimeko nganye; kwityala lesithathu elingekho mthethweni lomdlali omnye, usompempe kufuneka abhengeze ukuba umdlalo uphulukene naloo mdlali.

    Nangona kunjalo, umdlalo uyatsalwa xa indawo ifikelelwe apho umchasi engenakho ukujonga inkosi yomchasi ngothotho lwamanyathelo asemthethweni anokwenzeka.

    7.4 Ukuba, ngexesha lomdlalo, iziqwenga zifunyenwe zisukile emakhayeni azo, kufuneka kubuyiswe kwangoko phambi kwesitenxo. Ukuba indawo ephambi kwesitenxo ayinakumiselwa, umdlalo uya kuqhubeka ukusuka kwindawo yokugqibela enokuchongwa phambi kwesitenxo. Iiwotshi kufuneka zibekwe ngokungqinelana neNqaku 6.13. Ukudlala kufuneka kuqhubeke ukusuka kwindawo ebuyiselweyo.

    8. Isishwankathelo sonikelo

    8.1  Ngexesha lomdlalo, umdlali ngamnye kufuneka abhale 'kwi-spreadsheet' emiselweyo yokhuphiswano, kwi-algebraic notation (Jonga iSihlomelo C), iintshukumo zabo kunye nezo zomchasi, ngendlela echanekileyo, bashukumise intshukumo, ngendlela icace ngakumbi kwaye ifundeka ngokusemandleni. Akuvunyelwe ukubhala i-rally ngaphambi kokuba uyenze ebhodini, ngaphandle kwaxa ubango lubotshiwe phantsi kweNqaku 9.2, 9.3, okanye umdlalo umiselwe elinye ixesha ngokungqinelana neNqaku 1.a. Izikhokelo zokumka eziMiselweyo.

    Umdlali angaphendula kwintshutshiso ngaphambi kokuba ayibhale, ukuba bayathanda.

    Kuya kufuneka ubhale umnikelo wakho wangaphambili ngaphambi kokwenza enye.

    Bobabini abadlali kufuneka bangene kwisibonelelo sokuzoba kwispredishithi (Jonga iSihlomelo C.13).

    Ukuba umdlali akakwazi ukufumana amanqaku, umncedisi onokuthi anikwe ngumdlali aze amkelwe ngusompempe, uya kwenza ushukume. Iwotshi yakhe kufuneka ibekwe ngokufanelekileyo ngusompempe.

    8.2 Ngexesha lomdlalo, ispredishithi kufuneka sihlale sibonakala kusompempe.

    8.3 Izipredishithi ziyipropathi yabaququzeleli bomnyhadala.

    8.4 Ukuba umdlali unemizuzu engaphantsi kwemihlanu kwiwotshi yakhe nangaliphi na ixesha ngexesha lomdlalo kwaye akafumani ixesha elongezelelweyo lemizuzwana engama-30 okanye nangaphezulu emva kwentshukumo nganye, ngexesha eliseleyo alinyanzelekanga ukuba ahlangabeze iimfuno zomdlalo. Icandelo 8.1. Ngokukhawuleza emva kokuwa kolunye 'lweentolo', umdlali kufuneka ahlaziye iphepha lakhe lokusebenzela ngaphambi kokuhambisa isiqwenga ebhodini.

    8.5 Ukuba akukho mdlali kufuneka afake amanqaku, ngokungqinelana neNqaku 8.4, usompempe okanye umncedisi makazame ukungqina kwaye arekhode iintshukumo. Kule meko, kwangoko emva kokuba utolo luwile, usompempe kufuneka amise iiwotshi. Emva koko bobabini abadlali mabahlaziye amanqaku abo, besebenzisa usompempe okanye umdlali welinye iqela.

    1. Ukuba ngumdlali omnye kuphela ekufuneka erekhodile, ngokuhambelana nemigaqo yeSiqendu 8.4, nje ukuba enye yeentolo iwile, kuya kufuneka ahlaziye iphepha lakhe lokusebenzela ngaphambi kokuhambisa isiqwenga ebhodini. Logama lithuba lakho lokuhamba, umdlali angasebenzisa ispredishithi somchasi, kodwa kufuneka ayibuyise ngaphambi kokwenza intshukumo.
    2. Ukuba ispredishithi esipheleleyo asifumaneki, abadlali kufuneka baphinde bawakhe umdlalo kwelinye ibhodi, phantsi kolawulo lukasompempe okanye umncedisi. Phambi kokuqala kolwakhiwo lomdlalo kwakhona, usompempe uya kurekhoda indawo yomdlalo yangoku, amaxesha kunye nenani leentshukumo ezenziwe, ukuba olu lwazi lukhona
      1. Ukuba ispredishithi siphelelwe lixesha kwaye sibonisa ukuba umdlali ugqithile kumda wexesha, inyathelo elilandelayo kufuneka lithathelwe ingqalelo njengelokuqala kwixesha elizayo, ngaphandle kokuba kukho ubungqina bokuba kwenziwe amanyathelo amaninzi.
      1. Emva komdlalo, bobabini abadlali kufuneka batyikitye zombini iishiti, ezibonisa iziphumo zomdlalo. Nokuba ayichanekanga, esi siphumo simile, ngaphandle kokuba usompempe uthathe isigqibo ngenye indlela.

    9. Imidlalo ebotshiweyo

    9.1 Imithetho yokhuphiswano inokuchaza ukuba abadlali abanakuvuma ukubopha ngaphantsi kwenani elithile leentshukumo okanye nangayiphi na indlela, ngaphandle kwemvume kasompempe.

    9.2 Ukuba imigaqo yokhuphiswano ivumela ukutsalwa ekuvunyelwene ngako, oku kulandelayo kuyasebenza:

    1. Umdlali ofuna ukuphakamisa itoss kufuneka enze oko emva kokwenza intshukumo ebhodini, ngaphambi kokumisa iwotshi kunye nokuqala iwotshi yomchasi. Isithembiso nangaliphi na ixesha elilelinye ngexesha lomdlalo sihlala sisebenza, kodwa iNqaku 12.6 kufuneka liqwalaselwe. Imiqathango ayinakubandakanywa kwisindululo. Kuzo zombini iimeko, isithembiso asinakho ukurhoxiswa kwaye sihlala sisebenza de umdlali welinye iqela asamkele, asikhabe ngomlomo, asigatye ngokuchukumisa isiqwenga ngenjongo yokusihambisa okanye ukusithimba, okanye ukuba umdlalo uphela ngenye indlela.
    1. Isibonelelo sokuzoba kufuneka siqwalaselwe ngabadlali ababini kwizipredishithi zabo ezinophawu (Jonga iSihlomelo C13).
    1. Ibango lokutsala elisekwe kumaNqaku 9.2, 9.3 okanye 10.2 liya kuqwalaselwa njengesithembiso sokutsalwa.

    9.2 Umdlalo uyatsalwa, emva kwesikhalazo esichanekileyo esivela kumdlali onethuba lokudlala, xa ekwindawo enye, ubuncinci amatyeli amathathu (akunjalo ngokuphindaphinda intshukumo)

    1. Izakuvela, ukuba uqala ubhale inyathelo lakho kwispredishithi kwaye uxele usompempe injongo yakho yokuhamba, okanye
    1. uvele nje kwaye umdlali obanga ukuba umtya unethuba lokudlala.

    Izikhundla ngokwe (a) kunye (b) zithathwa ngokufana, ukuba umdlali omnye unethuba, iziqwenga zohlobo olufanayo kunye nombala zihlala kwizikwere ezifanayo, kunye nentshukumo enokubakho kuzo zonke iziqwenga zabadlali enjalo.

    Izikhundla azifani ukuba i-pawn ebinokuthi ibanjwe 'umntu odlulayo' ayisenakufakwa ngale ndlela. Xa inkosi (okanye i-rook) inyanzeliswa ukuba ifuduke, ilahlekelwa lilungelo layo lokuphosa, ukuba likho, kuphela emva kokufuduswa.

    9.3. Umdlalo ubotshiwe, ngenxa yesikhalazo esifanelekileyo kumdlali onethuba lokudlala, ukuba:

    1. Urekhoda intshukumo yakhe kwiphepha lakhe lokusebenzela kwaye uxelele usompempe injongo yakhe yokuphumeza intshukumo yakhe, eya kuthi ikhokelele ekuhambeni okungama-50 komdlali ngamnye ngaphandle kwentshukumo ye-pawn kwaye ngaphandle kokubanjwa, okanye
    1. Iintshukumo zokugqibela ezingama-50 ezilandelelanayo zenziwe ngabo bobabini abadlali, ngaphandle kwentshukumo ye-pawn okanye ukubanjwa.
      1. Ukuba umdlali uchukumisa isiqwenga ngokweNqaku 4.3 ngaphandle kokubanga iqhina, uphulukana nelungelo lokubanga, ngokweNqaku 9.2 kunye ne-9.3, kolo hambo.
      1. Ukuba umdlali ubanga iqhina, ngokwamanqaku 9.2 kunye no-9.3, angayimisa yomibini le wotshi. (Jonga iNqaku 6.12.b) Awunakho ukurhoxisa ibango
    1. Ukuba ibango limiselwe ukuba lichanekile, umdlalo utsalwa kwangoko
    1. Ukuba ibango kugqityiwe ukuba alichanekanga, usompempe kufuneka ongeze imizuzu emithathu kwixesha eliseleyo lomdlali elichasayo. Ke umdlalo kufuneka uqhubeke. Ukuba ibango lenziwe ngesiseko sesithembiso esicetywayo, esi sibonelelo kufuneka senziwe ngokungqinelana nemigaqo yeSiqendu 4.

    9.4 Umdlalo uyatsalwa xa indawo kufikelelwe kuyo xa kungakhange kujongwe ngenxa yoluhlu olunokwenzeka lwezinto ezisemthethweni. Oku kuwuphelisa kwangoko umdlalo lo gama intshukumo evelisa esi sikhundla isemthethweni.

    10. Isiphelo esikhawulezayo

    10.1 'Ukuphela okukhawulezileyo' sisigaba somdlalo apho konke (okuseleyo) kushukunyiswa kufuneka kwenziwe ngaphakathi kwexesha elithile.

    10.2 Ukuba umdlali, onethuba lokudlala, unemizuzu engaphantsi kwemibini kwiwotshi yakhe, unokufaka ibango ngaphambi kokuba utolo lwakhe luwele. Kuya kufuneka abize usompempe kwaye angayeka iwotshi (Jonga iNqaku 6.12.b).

    1. Ukuba usompempe uyayamkela into yokuba umdlali welinye iqela akenzi nzame zokuphumelela umdlalo, ngeendlela eziqhelekileyo, okanye ukuba umdlali welinye iqela akanakuphumelela ngendlela yesiqhelo, kufuneka abhengeze iqhina. Ngaphandle koko, kufuneka uhlehlise isigqibo sakho okanye usikhabe isikhalazo. Ukuba usompempe uyasihlehlisa isigqibo sakhe, umdlali welinye iqela unokuvunyelwa imizuzu emibini yexesha elongezelelweyo kwaye umdlalo kufuneka uqhubeke ukuba kunokwenzeka usompempe. Usompempe kufuneka abhengeze iziphumo zokugqibela emva komdlalo okanye ngokukhawuleza emva kokuba utolo luwe. Kuya kufuneka ubhengeze iqhina ukuba uyayamkela into yokuba indawo yokugqibela ayinakuphumelela ngeendlela eziqhelekileyo, okanye ukuba umdlali welinye iqela ebengenzi mizamo yaneleyo yokuphumelela umdlalo ngendlela eqhelekileyo.
    1. Ukuba usompempe uyalikhaba ibango, umdlali welinye iqela kufuneka abe nemizuzu emibini yexesha elongezelelweyo.
    1. Isigqibo somlamli siya kuba sesokugqibela (ngaphandle kwesibheno) se (a), (b), (c).

    11. Amanqaku

    11. Ngaphandle kokuba kubhengezwe ngaphambili, kungenjalo, umdlali ophumelele umdlalo wabo, okanye ophumeleleyo ngu-WO, ufumana inqaku (1), umdlali ophulukene nomdlalo wakhe okanye ophulukene ne-WO ufumana (0) pt kwaye umdlali bopha umdlalo wakho ufumana amanqaku esiqingatha senqaku (½).

    12. Ukuziphatha komdlali.

    12. 1 Abadlali abayi kuba nakho ukuthatha naliphi na inyathelo elibangela igama elibi kumdlalo wechess.

    1. Abadlali abanakho ukushiya “indawo yokudlala” ngaphandle kwemvume kasompempe. Indawo yemidlalo ibandakanya igumbi lomdlalo, indawo yokuphumla, indawo elula yokutya, indawo ebekelwe abantu abatshayayo kunye nezinye iindawo ezichongwe ngusompempe. Umdlali onethuba lokudlala akanako ukuphuma ebaleni ngaphandle kwemvume kasompempe.

    12.2 Ngexesha lomdlalo, abadlali abavunyelwe ekusebenziseni amanqaku, imithombo yolwazi okanye iingcebiso, okanye ukuhlalutya kwenye ibhodi.

    1. Ngaphandle kwemvume kasompempe, umdlali akavumelekanga ukuba aphathe iselfowuni okanye ezinye iindlela zonxibelelwano kwigumbi lezemidlalo, ngaphandle kokuba uqhawulwe ngokupheleleyo. Ukuba nasiphi na kwezi zixhobo sivelisa ingxolo, umdlali kufuneka aphulukane nomdlalo. Umchasi kufuneka aphumelele. Nangona kunjalo, ukuba umdlali welinye iqela akakwazi ukuwuphumelela umdlalo ngothotho lweentshukumo zomthetho, amanqaku akhe kufuneka athathwe njenge tie.
    1. Ukutshaya kuvunyelwe kuphela kwindawo egqitywe ngusompempe.
      1. Ispredishithi kufuneka sisetyenziselwe ukurekhoda kuphela iibhidi, amaxesha eewotshi, ibhidi yetayi, iirekhodi ezinxulumene nesikhalazo kunye nolunye ulwazi olufanelekileyo.
      1. Abadlali abayigqibileyo imidlalo yabo kufuneka bathathelwe ingqalelo njengababukeli.
      1. Akuvunyelwe ukuphazamisa okanye ukuphazamisa umdlali nangayiphi na indlela. Oku kubandakanya izikhalazo ezingenangqondo, ukunikezelwa kwe-sweepstakes, okanye ukuboniswa komthombo wengxolo kwindawo yokudlala.
      1. Ukophulwa kwalo naliphi na icandelo lama-12.1 ukuya kwele-12.6 kuya kukhokelela ekusetyenzisweni kwezohlwayo ezichazwe kwinqaku le-13.4.

    12.3 Ukwala okungapheliyo komdlali ekuthobeleni iMithetho ye-Chess kufuneka yohlwaywe ngokuphulukana nomdlalo. Usompempe kufuneka athathe isigqibo ngamanqaku omdlali welinye iqela.

      1. Ukuba bobabini abadlali bafunyaniswe benetyala phantsi kweSiqendu 12.8, umdlalo uya kubhengezwa njengolahlekileyo kubo bobabini.
      1. Kwimeko yobugcisa. 10.2.d. okanye isiHlomelo D, umdlali akanakho ukubhena kwisigqibo sikasompempe.

    Ngayo nayiphi na enye imeko, umdlali unokubhena ngokuchasene nesigqibo sikasompempe, ngaphandle kokuba imigaqo yokhuphiswano ichaza ngenye indlela.

    13. Indima kasompempe

    13.1 Usompempe kufuneka aqinisekise ukuba iMithetho yeChess iyagcinwa ngokungqongqo.

      1. Usompempe kufuneka enze okona kulungiselela ukhuphiswano. Kuya kufuneka uqiniseke ukuba kukho indawo efanelekileyo yokudlala, ukuze abadlali bangaphazanyiswa. Kufuneka ujonge kwakhona ukuqhuba kokhuphiswano.
      1. Usompempe kufuneka ayiqwalasele imidlalo, ngakumbi xa abadlali befike ngexesha, anyanzelise izigqibo azenzileyo, kwaye abeke isohlwayo kubadlali xa kufanelekile.

    13.2 Usompempe unokufaka isohlwayo esinye okanye ezingaphezulu kwezi zilandelayo:

    1. isilumkiso,
    2. ukwandisa ixesha eliseleyo lomdlali,
    3. ukunciphisa ixesha eliseleyo lomdlali owonileyo,
    4. bhengeza ukuba umdlalo ulahlekile,
    5. ukunciphisa amanqaku afunyenwe kumdlalo ngumdlali owonayo,
    6. Yandisa amanqaku afunyenwe kumdlalo welinye iqela ukuya kwelona nqanaba liphezulu lomdlalo,
    7. ukugxothwa kumsitho
      1. Usompempe angamnika omnye okanye bobabini abadlali ixesha elongezelelweyo xa kukho ukuphazamiseka kwangaphandle ngexesha lomdlalo.
      1. Usompempe akufuneki angenelele emdlalweni, ngaphandle kwaleyo ibekiweyo kwimithetho ye

    I-Chess. Akufanele ibonise inani leentshukumo ezenziweyo, ngaphandle kwaxa kusenziwa amalungiselelo eSiqendu 8.5, xa enye yeentolo iwile. Usompempe kufuneka ayeke ukwazisa umdlali ukuba umdlali lowo sele etshintshile okanye ukuba akakhange aqalise ixesha lakhe.

      1. Inkqubo ye-. Ababukeli kunye nabadlali beminye imidlalo akufuneki bathethe okanye baphazamise umdlalo nangayiphi na indlela. Ukuba kunyanzelekile, usompempe angabakhupha aboni kwindawo yokudlala. Ukuba umntu othile uqaphela isitenxo, unokwazisa usompempe kuphela.

    EWE. Ngaphandle kokuba kugunyaziswe ngusompempe, akuvumelekanga ukuba nabani na asebenzise iselfowuni okanye nasiphi na isixhobo sonxibelelwano kwindawo kunye nakweyiphi na enye indawo ehambelana nosompempe.

    Isithombo

    14.1 Imibutho emanyeneyo inokucela i-FIDE ukuba ibonelele ngesigqibo esisemthethweni kwimiba enxulumene neMithetho ye-Chess.

    Izihlomelo

    A. I-chess ekhawulezayo

    A1 Umdlalo we-'Chess okhawulezayo 'yenye apho zonke iintshukumo kufuneka zenziwe ngaphakathi komda omiselweyo we-15 yemizuzu, kodwa ngaphantsi kwemizuzu engama-60 kumdlali ngamnye; okanye ixesha eliphambili + kumaxesha angama-60 nakuphi na ukunyusa ubuncinci imizuzu eli-15, kodwa ingaphantsi kwemizuzu engama-60 kumdlali ngamnye.

    A2 Abadlali akufuneki ukuba barekhode iintshukumo zomdlalo.

    A3 Xa kukho ulawulo olwaneleyo lomdlalo (umzekelo, usompempe omnye kwimidlalo emithathu ubuninzi) imigaqo yoKhuphiswano iyasebenza.

    A4 Xa ukubekwa esweni kungonelanga, imigaqo yoKhuphiswano iyasebenza, ngaphandle kwalapho ilawulwa yile Mithetho ilandelayo yeRapid Chess:

    1. Nje ukuba umdlali ngamnye enze amanyathelo amathathu, akukho zikhalazo zinokwenziwa ngokubekwa ngokungachanekanga kweziqwenga, ukubekwa kwebhodi, okanye ukuseta iwotshi. Kwimeko yotshintsho lwesikhundla phakathi kokumkani nokumkanikazi, akuvumelekanga ukudubula kunye nokumkani.
    1. Usompempe kufuneka angenelele ngokuhambelana nezibonelelo zo-Art 4 (Umthetho wokuhambisa iziqwenga), kuphela xa kufunwa ngumdlali omnye okanye bobabini.
    1. Ukuhamba okungekho mthethweni kugqityiwe kwangoko xa kuqala iwotshi yomchasi. Umchasi unelungelo lokubanga ukuba umdlali ugqibile ngokuhamba ngokungekho mthethweni, ngaphandle kokuba akwenziwanga. Kuphela kusemva kwesikhalazo esinokuthi usompempe angenelele. Nangona kunjalo, ukuba bobabini ookumkani baphantsi kolawulo okanye ukunyuswa kwenqina kungagqitywanga, usompempe kufuneka angenelele, ukuba kunokwenzeka.
    1. 1. Utolo luthathwa ngokuba luwile xa omnye wabadlali esenza ibango elifanelekileyo. Usompempe kufuneka ayeke ukwalatha utolo oluwayo, kodwa angangenelela ukuba zombini iintolo ziyawa.

    A5 Ukufaka ibango lokuwina ixesha, ibango kufuneka liyeke zombini iwotshi kwaye lazise usompempe.

    Ukuze ibango libe yimpumelelo, emva kokuba iiwotshi ziyekile, utolo lomntu obanga ibango malibe 'phezulu' kunye notolo lomchasi wakhe phantsi emva kokuba iwotshi ime.

    A6 Ukuba zombini iintolo zikhululiwe njengoko kuchaziwe ku (1) naku (2), usompempe kufuneka awuxele umdlalo njengeqhina.

    Umbane wombane

    B1 Umdlalo 'wombane' yeyona nto apho yonke intshukumo kufuneka yenziwe ngaphakathi kwexesha elimiselweyo elingaphantsi kwemizuzu eli-15 kumdlali ngamnye; okanye ixesha eliphambili + kumaxesha angama-60 nakuphi na ukunyusa kungaphantsi kwemizuzu eli-15.

    B2 Xa kukho ukubekwa esweni komdlalo (usompempe omnye kumdlalo ngamnye), imigaqo yoKhuphiswano kunye nemigaqo yeCandelo A2 iyasebenza.

    B3 Xa ukubekwa esweni kungonelanga, oku kulandelayo kuya kusebenza.

    1. Imidlalo iya kulawulwa yiMithetho ye-Chess ekhawulezileyo njengoko kubonelelwe kwiSihlomelo A, ngaphandle kwalapho ilawulwa yile Mithetho Yombane ilandelayo.
    1. Amanqaku 10.2 no-A4c awasebenzi.
    2. Ukuhamba ngokungekho mthethweni kugqityiwe kwangoko xa kuqala iwotshi yomchasi. Ngaphambi kokwenza intshukumo yakhe, umdlali welinye iqela unelungelo lokubanga uloyiso. Nangona kunjalo, umdlali unelungelo lokubanga idraw ngaphambi kokuba enze eyakhe intshukumo, ukuba umdlali welinye iqela akakwazi kulilawula ngenxa yothotho lwezinto ezisemthethweni ezinokwenzeka. Emva kokuba umchasi ekugqibile ukuhamba kwakhe, intshukumo engekho mthethweni ayinakulungiswa ngaphandle kokuba kukho isivumelwano esifanayo ngaphandle kongenelelo lukasompempe.

    Inkcazo yenkqubo yealgebra

    C1 Kule nkcazo, "isiqwenga" sithetha nayiphi na into, ngaphandle kwepawn.

    C2 Isiqwenga ngasinye siboniswa ngonobumba wokuqala wegama laso. Umzekelo: R = nkosi, D = ukumkanikazi, T = rook, B = ubhishophu, C = knight. (Kwimeko yehashe, ukulungiselela, sebenzisa uN.)

    C3 Kwileta yokuqala yegama lamaqhekeza, umdlali ukhululekile ukusebenzisa unobumba wokuqala wegama njengoko uqhele ukwenziwa kwilizwe lakhe. Umzekelo: F = fou (isiFrentshi kubhishophu), L = loper (umDatshi kubhishophu). Kwimagazini eprintiweyo, ukusetyenziswa kweesinxibo kuyacetyiswa.

    Iimpawu C4 Ababoniswa ngeleta yabo yokuqala, kodwa bayaziwa ngokungabikho kwabo. Umzekelo: e5, d4, a5.

    C5 Iikholamu ezisibhozo (ekhohlo ukuya ekunene emhlophe nasekunene ukuya ekhohlo mnyama) ziboniswe ngoonobumba abancinci, a, b, c, d, e, f, g, no-h, ngokwahlukeneyo.

    C6 Imiqolo esibhozo (ukusuka ezantsi kuye phezulu kumdlali omhlophe kwaye ukusuka phezulu kuye ezantsi kumdlali omnyama) zinenombolo 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, no-8 ngokwahlukeneyo. Ngenxa yoko, kwindawo yokuqala, iziqwenga ezimhlophe zibekwe kumqolo wokuqala nowesibini; Iziqwenga ezimnyama zibekwe kumqolo wesibhozo nowesixhenxe.

    C7 Ngenxa yale mithetho ingentla, ibhokisi nganye kwezingama-64 ibonakaliswa ngokungangqinelaniyo ngokudityaniswa konobumba kunye nenani.

    C8 Uhambo ngalunye lwesiqwenga luboniswa a) unobumba wokuqala wegama lesiqwenga kuthethwa ngaso kunye b) nendawo yokufika. Akukho dash phakathi kwe) kunye b).

    Imizekelo: Be5, Nf3, Rd1.

    Kwimeko yabahambi ngeenyawo, kuphela yindawo yokufika ebonakalisiweyo. Imizekelo: e5, d4, a5.

    C9 Xa kufakwa isiqwenga, x ufakwa phakathi (a) kweleta yokuqala kunye negama lesicatshulwa ekuthethwa ngaso kunye b) nendawo yokufika. Imizekelo: Bxe5, Nxf3, Rxd1. Xa i-pawn yenza ukubanjwa, ikholamu yokuqala kufuneka iboniswe, emva koko ngu-x, ekugqibeleni isikwere sokufika. Imizekelo: dxe5, gxf3, axb5. Kwimeko yokubanjwa kuka 'en passant', isikwere ekujoliswe kuso sinikezelwa, sibonisa ukuba iphawundi ifike phi ekugqibeleni, kwaye oonobumba u-'ep 'bongezwa ku-notation. Umzekelo: exd6 ep

    C10 Ukuba iithayile ezimbini ezifanayo zinokuya kwisikwere esinye, iithayile ezihambayo ziboniswa ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

    1. Ukuba omabini la maqweqwe akumqolo omnye: a) unobumba wokuqala wegama lesiqwenga, b) ikholamu yendawo yokumka, kunye c) nendawo yokufika.
    1. Ukuba iziqwenga ezibini zikwikholamu enye: a) unobumba wokuqala wegama lesiqwenga, b) umqolo wendawo yokumka, kunye c) nendawo yokufika

    Ukuba iziqwenga zikwiikholamu ezahlukeneyo kunye nakwimiqolo, indlela 1) ikhethwayo. Kwimeko yokubanjwa, 'x' unokongezwa phakathi b) kunye c).

    Imizekelo:

    • Kukho ii-knights ezimbini, kwizikwere g1 kunye ne-e1, kwaye enye yazo iya kwisikwere f3: Ngf3 okanye Nef3, njengoko kunokuba kunjalo.
    • Kukho ii-knights ezimbini, kwizikwere ze-g5 kunye ne-g1, kwaye enye yazo iya kwisikwere f3: C5f3 okanye C1f3, njengoko kunokuba kunjalo.
    • Kukho ii-knights ezimbini, kwindlu h2 kunye ne-d4, kwaye enye yazo iya endlwini f3: Nf3 okanye Ndf3, njengoko kunokuba njalo.
    • Ukuba ukubamba kwenzeka kwisakhelo f3, le mizekelo ingentla itshintshiwe ngokudibanisa 'x':

    1) Ukuba iipawundi ezimbini zinokubamba isiqwenga esifanayo nesomdlali welinye iqela, i-pawn eshukumayo ibonakaliswe ngu-a) unobumba wekholamu yokuqala, b) 'x', c) isikwere sokugqibela. Umzekelo: ukuba kukho iipawundi ezimhlophe kwizikwere c4 kunye no-e4 kunye nesiqwenga esimnyama kwi-d5, uphawu lwentshukumo kaMhlophe ngu-cxd5 okanye u-exd5, ngokufanelekileyo.

    Kwimeko yonyuselo lwe-pawn, intshukumo ye-pawn iyaboniswa, ilandelwa kwangoko kwangoko yileta yokuqala yesiqwenga esitsha. Imizekelo: d8D, f8C, b1B, g1T.

    Isithembiso sokubopha kufuneka siphawulwe njengo (=)

    Izifinyezo ezibalulekileyo:

    0-0 = isikhunta ngenqaba h1 okanye inqaba h8 (ilitye elincinci)

    0-0-0 = ukungunda ngenqaba a1 okanye inqaba a8

    (ilitye elikhulu) x = thimba

    + = jonga ++ okanye # = ukujonga

    ep = bamba "ukudlula"

    Akunyanzelekanga ukuba ubhale isheke, ujonge kwaye ubambe kwi-spreadsheet

    Ukukhawulezisa ukuphela ngaphandle kosompempe kwindawo yomdlalo

    Kwiimeko apho imidlalo ilawulwa yimigaqo yeSiqendu 10, umdlali angabanga idrowa xa engaphantsi kwemizuzu emibini kwiwotshi yakhe nangaphambi kokuba utolo lwakhe luwele. Oku kugqiba umdlalo. Unokwenza ibango ngokusekwe:

    1. ukuba umchasi wakho akanakuphumelela ngeendlela eziqhelekileyo, kunye / okanye
    2. ukuba umdlali wakho akenzi nzame zokuphumelela ngeendlela eziqhelekileyo.

    Kwi-hypothesis (a), umdlali kufuneka arekhode indawo yokugqibela kwaye umchasi uyayijonga.

    Kwi-hypothesis (b), umdlali kufuneka arekhode indawo yokugqibela kwispredishithi esihlaziyiweyo.

    Umchasi kufuneka aqinisekise kokubini indawo yokugqibela kunye nephepha lokusebenzela.

    Isikhalazo kufuneka sithunyelwe kumlamli, isigqibo sakhe siya kuba sesokugqibela.

    Imigaqo yomdlalo nabantu abangaboniyo nababona ngokuyinxenye.

    Abalawuli beetonamenti ze-E1 kufuneka babe namandla okulungisa le mithetho idweliswe ngezantsi ngokweemeko zendawo.

    Kumdlalo wetshesi okhuphisanayo phakathi kwabadlali ababonayo kunye nabangaboni kakuhle (umdlali ongaboniyo ngokusemthethweni), nokuba ngubani umdlali angafuna ukusetyenziswa kweebhodi ezimbini, abadlali abajongileyo abanebhodi eqhelekileyo, kunye nomdlali ongaboni kakuhle onebhodi eyakhiwe ngokukodwa. Umgangatho owakhiwe ngokukodwa kufuneka uhlangabeze ezi mfuno zilandelayo:

    1. ubuncinci bemilinganiselo ye-20 x 20 cm;
    2. izindlu ezimnyama ziphumle kancinci;
    3. umngxunya omncinci kwindlu nganye;
    4. Iqhekeza ngalinye kufuneka libe nepini encinci elingana ngokugqibeleleyo emngxunyeni wezindlu;
    5. Iimpawu ze "Staunton", amaqhekeza amnyama aphawulwe ngokukodwa.

    E2 Le mithetho ilandelayo kufuneka ilawule umdlalo:

    1. Unikezelo kufuneka lubhengezwe ngokucacileyo, luphindwe ngumchasi kwaye lwenziwe ebhodini yakhe. Xa kuphakanyiswa i-pawn, umdlali kufuneka abhengeze ukuba leliphi na iqhekeza elikhethiweyo. Ukwenza isibhengezo sicace ngangokunokwenzeka, kucetyiswa ukuba kusetyenziswe

    La magama alandelayo endaweni yoonobumba abahambelana nealgebra

    UA-Anna

    B-Bella

    UCesare

    UD-David

    E-Eva

    UFeliksi

    UG-Gustav

    H-Hector

    Imiqolo evela kumhlophe iye kumnyama kufuneka ibe namanani ngesiJamani:

    1 uthanda

    2-ezimbini (dois)

    I-3-drei (ezintathu)

    4 ukutya (ezine)

    5-fuenf (ezintlanu)

    I-6-sechs (ezintandathu)

    I-7-sixhenxe (iseti)

    8 acht (ezisibhozo)

    I-castling ibhengeziwe "Lange Rochade"(IGrande Roque ngolwimi lwesiJamani) kunye" noKurze Rochade "(castling encinci kulwimi lwesiJamani).

    Iziqwenga zisebenzisa amagama olwimi lwesiJamani:

    "Koenig ”(King),“ Dame ”(Queen),“ Turm ”(Rook),“ Laeufer ”(Bishop),“ Springer ”(Horse) kunye no“ Bauer ”(Pawn).

    1. Kwibhodi yomdlali ongaboniyo, isiqwenga sithathwa njengesichukumisiweyo xa sisuswe kumngxunya wokulungisa.
    1. Isithembiso sithathwa njengesenziwa xa:
    1. kwimeko yokubanjwa, ukuba isiqwenga esifakiweyo sisusiwe kwibhodi yomdlali ekufanele ukudlala kuye;
    2. Inxalenye ibekwe kwindawo eyahlukileyo yokulungisa;
    1. Isibhengezo sibhengeziwe.

    Kungelo xesha kuphela eliya kuthi liqaliswe ixesha lomchasi.

    Nje ukuba kufakwe amanqaku ama-2 kunye nama-3 apha ngasentla, imigaqo yesiqhelo iyasebenza kumdlali wokuvumisa.

    4. Ukusetyenziswa kwewotshi eyakhiwe ngokukodwa yomdlali ongaboni kakuhle kuvunyelwe. Umlindo kufuneka ube nezi mpawu zilandelayo:

    1. Ukucofa okulungelelaniswe ngezandla eziqinisiweyo, yonke imizuzu emihlanu ephawulwe ichaphaza kunye nayo yonke imizuzu eli-15 ngamachaphaza amabini;
    2. Utolo olunokuva ngokulula ngokuthinta. Kufuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo ekhethekileyo ukuze iintolo zilungelelaniswe ngokufanelekileyo ukuze umdlali azive izandla zemizuzu emihlanu yokugqibela yeyure epheleleyo.
    1. Umdlali ongaboni kakuhle kufuneka arekhode umdlalo ngeBraille, okanye abhale iintshukumo ngesandla, okanye azirekhode kwiteyiphu yamagnetic.
    1. Naziphi na iimpazamo ekubhengezeni intshukumo kufuneka zilungiswe kwangoko ngaphambi kokuba umlindo welinye iqela uqale.
    1. Ukuba ngexesha lomdlalo izikhundla ezahlukileyo zivela kwiibhodi ezimbini, kufuneka zilungiswe ngoncedo lukasompempe kwaye ziqwalasele iphepha lokusebenzela labadlali ababini. Ukuba ezi phepha zimbini ziyangqinelana, umdlali obhale inyathelo ngokuchanekileyo, kodwa waliphumeza ngokungachanekanga, kufuneka alungise indawo yabo ukuze ahambelane nentshukumo eboniswe kwiphepha lokusebenzela.
    1. Kwimeko apho iyantlukwano kwiiphepha ezimbini zokusebenzela, isikhundla kufuneka siphinde senziwe kwindawo apho amaphepha okusebenzela amabini ahambelana khona kwaye usompempe uya kuseta iiwotshi ngokufanelekileyo ukuba kukho imfuneko.
    1. Umdlali ongaboni kakuhle uya kuba nelungelo lokusebenzisa umncedisi oya kuthi enze naziphi na okanye zonke ezi zinto zilandelayo:
    1. Yenza intshukumo yomdlali ngamnye kwibhodi yomchasi;
    2. Bhengeza intshukumo yabo bobabini abadlali;
    3. Rekhoda iintshukumo kwiphepha lokusebenzela lomdlali ongaboni kakuhle kwaye uqalise iwotshi yomchasi (kuthathelwa ingqalelo umgaqo 3.c);
    4. yazisa umdlali ongaboni kakuhle, kuphela kwisicelo sakhe, inani leentshukumo ezenziwe kunye nexesha elichithwe bobabini abadlali;
    5. ukubanga uloyiso ukuba iwotshi yomchasi iwile kwaye wazise usompempe xa umdlali oqiqayo ebambe elinye lamaqhekeza akhe.
    6. Yenza iinkqubo eziyimfuneko kwimeko yokumiswa.

    10. Ukuba umdlali ongaboni kakuhle akasebenzisi mncedisi, umdlali onombono angacela umntu othile ukuba athathe uxanduva lokufezekisa uxanduva olukhankanywe kumanqaku 9.a no-9b.

    I-Chess ilawula i-960

    F1  Ngaphambi komdlalo weChess960, indawo yokuqala ibekwa ngokungahleliwe, ngokuxhomekeke kwimithetho ethile. Emva koko, umdlalo udlalwa ngendlela efanayo nechess. Ngokukodwa, iziqwenga kunye neepawundi zinentshukumo yazo yesiqhelo, kwaye injongo yomdlali ngamnye kukujonga inkosi yomchasi.

    Iimfuneko zokuqala indawo

    Isikhundla sokuqala seChess960 kufuneka silandele imigaqo ethile. Iipeyi ezimhlophe kufuneka zibekwe kumqolo wesibini njengesiqhelo kwi-chess. Onke amaqhekeza amhlophe abekwe ngokungacwangciswanga kumqolo wokuqala, kodwa enale miqobo ilandelayo:

    1. Ukumkani ubekwa kwindawo ethile phakathi kwezi nqaba zimbini, kwaye
    2. Oobhishophu babekwe kwizindlu ezinemibala eyahlukileyo, kwaye
    3. Amacwecwe amnyama abekwe ngqo malunga namaqhekeza amhlophe.

    Indawo yokuqala inokuveliswa ngaphambi kokuhamba, nokuba yinkqubo yekhompyuter okanye ngokusebenzisa idatha, imali okanye amakhadi, njl.

    Imithetho yeChess960 yokuphosa

    1. I-Chess960 ivumela umdlali ngamnye ukuba aphose kube kanye ngomdlalo ngamnye, kukumkani odibeneyo kunye nokuhamba ngokuhamba kunye. Nangona kunjalo, ezinye iindlela zokutolikwa komdlalo wechess ziyimfuneko ekuphoseni, kuba imigaqo yesiko ithatha indawo yokuqala yenkosi kunye ne-rook engasebenzi rhoqo kuma-960 chess.
    1. Ungaqalisa njani

    Kwi-Chess960, kuxhomekeke kwisikhundla sokumkani kunye ne-rook ngaphambi kwe-castling, i-castling yenziwa kusetyenziswa enye yeendlela ezine:

    1. Ukuhamba kabini kwamatye: Ukuhamba nokumkani kulandelwa kukushukunyiswa yirok.
    2. Ukuphosa ngokutshintsha: Ukutshintsha isikhundla sokumkani kunye neso sarok.
    3. Ukuphosa ngukumkani omnye hamba: Yenza ukumkani omnye ahambe.
    4. Yenza inqaba enye ukuba ihambe: Yenza inqaba enye yokuhamba.

    Ingcebiso:

    1. Xa uphoswa kwibhodi ebonakalayo kunye nomntu olwa naye, kuyacetyiswa ukuba inkosi isuke ebusweni bebhodi kufutshane kwindawo yayo yokugqibela, i-rook iyakusuka kwindawo yayo yokuqala iye kwindawo yayo yokugqibela, kwaye ekugqibeleni inkosi iya kubekwa. Indawo oya kuyo ekhaya.
    2. Emva kwe-castling, indawo yokugqibela ye-rook kunye ne-king iya kufana ncam nakwi-chess yamandulo.

    Ukucaciswa

    Ke emva kwe castling enkulu (eyaziwa njenge 0-0-0 kwaye yaziwa njenge Queen-side castling kwi orthodox chess, inkosi isendlini c (c1 emhlophe c8 emnyama) kwaye i rook Kwindlu d (d1 emhlophe kwaye d8 emnyama) Emva kokuphosa kwisikwere g

    (iqatshelwe njenge-0-0 kwaye yaziwa njenge-king-side castling kwi-orthodox chess), inkosi ikwele-g (g1 emhlophe kunye ne-g8 emnyama) kwaye i-rook iya kuba kwisikwere f (f1 emhlophe kunye f8 kumnyama).

    Inqaku:

    1. Ukuthintela naziphi na iimpazamo, kuyacetyiswa ukuba uthi "ndiza kuyivula" ngaphambi kokwenza isithembiso.

    2. Kwizikhundla ezithile zokuqala, inkosi okanye rook (kodwa hayi zombini) azihambi ngexesha lokuphosa.

    3, kwiindawo ezithile zokuqala, ukuphosa inokwenziwa ngaphambi kwexesha njengenyathelo lokuqala.

    1. Zonke izikwere phakathi kwezikwere zokuqala neziphelayo zikakumkani (kubandakanywa isikwere esiphelayo), kwaye zonke izikwere phakathi kwezikwere zokuqala neziphelayo (kubandakanya isikwere sokuphela), kufuneka zingabinabantu, ngaphandle kwezikwere zokumkani kunye nerokhi .
    1. Kwezinye iindawo zokuqalisa, ezinye izikwere, ebezingenabantu kwi-chess yemveli, zinokuhlala ngexesha lokuphosa. Umzekelo, emva kwekastling enkulu, kunokwenzeka, izindlu a, boe zihlala zikhona, kwaye emva kwenkqantosi encinci kunokwenzeka ukuba izindlu kunye / oh zihlala.

    Isikhokelo kwimeko apho umdlalo ufuna ukuhlehliswa

    1. Ukuba umdlalo awupheli ekupheleni kwexesha elimiselweyo lomdlalo, usompempe kufuneka abone ukuba umdlali unexesha lokudlala, "atywine" inyathelo elilandelayo. Umdlali kufuneka abhale inyathelo lakhe kwispredishithi ngendlela engacacanga, abeke ispredishithi sakhe kunye nesipredishithi somchasi kwimvulophu, ayitywine kwaye kuphela emva kokumisa iwotshi, ngaphandle kokuqala iwotshi yomchasi.

    Logama iwotshi ingapheli, umdlali unelungelo lokutshintsha intshukumo yakhe eyimfihlo. Ukuba, emva kokuba wazisiwe ngusompempe ukuba inyathelo elilandelayo liyakuba yimfihlo, umdlali uyahamba ebhodini, kuya kufuneka ayirekhode kwiphepha lakhe njengemfihlo yakhe.

    EWE. Usompempe uyakuthathela ingqalelo ukuba umdlali onethuba lokudlala, ofuna ukuwunqumamisa umdlalo ngaphambi kokuphela kweseshoni, usebenzise lonke ixesha eliseleyo ukuphelisa iseshoni.

    2. Imvulophu kufuneka ibonise:

    1. amagama abadlali;
    2. isikhundla kwangoko kwandulela intshukumo eyimfihlo, kwaye
    3. amaxesha asetyenziswa ngabadlali, kunye
    4. igama lomdlali owenza intshukumo eyimfihlo, kwaye
    5. inombolo yokunikezelwa kwemfihlo kunye
    6. isithembiso sokubopha, ukuba ngaba isicelo senziwe phambi kokuba umdlalo unqunyanyiswe, kwaye
    7. umhla, ixesha kunye nendawo oza kuqala kuyo umdlalo.

    3. Umlamli kufuneka aqinisekise ukuchaneka kwengcaciso equlethwe kwimvulophu kwaye unoxanduva lokugcina ngokukhuselekileyo.

    4.Ukuba umdlali uphakamisa iqhina emva kokuba umdlali enze intshukumo eyimfihlo, isindululo sihlala sisebenza de abe umdlali uyayamkela okanye uyayala, ngokungqinelana neNqaku 9.1.

    5Phambi kokuqala kwakhona komdlalo, indawo yokuma kwangoko phambi kwentshukumo eyimfihlo kufuneka ibekwe ebhodini kwaye, ukongeza, ixesha elisetyenziswe ngabadlali xa umdlalo wawunqunyanyisiwe kufuneka uboniswe kwiiwotshi.

    6.Ukuba ngaphambi kokuqalisa kwakhona komdlalo, abadlali badlale ngesivumelwano, okanye omnye wabadlali wazisa usompempe ukuba uyahamba, umdlalo uphelile. Imvulophu kufuneka ivulwe kuphela xa umdlali ekufuneka ephendule ngokufihlakeleyo ekhona.

    Ngaphandle kwamatyala akhankanywe kumanqaku 5, 6.9 kunye no-9.6, umdlalo ulahlekile kumdlali onerekhodi yokuhamba ngokufihlakeleyo

    1. inentsingiselo okanye
    2. bubuxoki, kangangokuba intsingiselo yayo yokwenene ayinakwenzeka ukumisela, okanye
    3. Akukho mthethweni.

    Ukuba uqala umdlalo kwakhona

    1. Umdlali ophendula intshukumo eyimfihlo ukho, imvulophu iyavulwa, intshukumo eyimfihlo yenziwe ebhodini kwaye ubeke iwotshi yakhe.
    2. Umdlali ekufuneka ephendule ngokufihlakeleyo akekho, iwotshi yakhe kufuneka ivuliwe. Ukufika kwakhe, umdlali angayimisa iwotshi yakhe aze abize usompempe. Imvulophu ivuliwe kwaye intshukumo eyimfihlo yenziwa ebhodini. Iwotshi yakho iyaqala.
    3. Umdlali owenza intshukumo eyimfihlo akakho, umchasi wakhe unelungelo lokuphendula kwispredishithi sakhe, atywine ispredishithi sakhe kwimvulophu entsha, ayeke iwotshi yakhe kwaye aqale umdlali welinye iqela, endaweni yokuphendula ngendlela eqhelekileyo . Kule meko, imvulophu entsha mayigcinwe elugcinweni lukasompempe kwaye ivulwe emva kokufika komchasi.

    7. Umdlali kufuneka aphulukane nomdlalo ukuba ufike ebhodini ngaphezulu kweyure enye emva kokuqalisa komdlalo omisiweyo (ngaphandle kokuba imigaqo yokhuphiswano ichaza okanye usompempe egqiba ngenye indlela)

    Nangona kunjalo, ukuba umdlali otywine intshukumo eyimfihlo ngumdlali ofike emva kwexesha, umdlalo uphela ngenye indlela ukuba:

    1. umdlali ongekhoyo uphumelele ngenxa yokuba inyathelo lakhe eliyimfihlo labulala umdlali welinye iqela, okanye
    2. Umdlali ongekhoyo uvelise umdlalo kuba intshukumo yakhe 'irhaxisile' inkosi yomchasi, okanye isikhundla njengoko kuchaziwe kwiNqaku 9.6 kukhokelele ebhodini, okanye
    3. Umdlali okhoyo ebhodini uphulukene nomdlalo ngokweNqaku 6.9.
    1. Ukuba imvulophu equlathe intshukumo eyimfihlo inyamalale, umdlalo kufuneka uqalwe kwakhona kwindawo yokuma ngexesha lokumiswa kunye namaxesha kwiiwotshi ebekiweyo ngexesha lokumiswa. Ukuba ixesha elisetyenziswe ngabadlali alinakho ukuseta kwakhona, iiwotshi kufuneka zilungiswe ngokokubona kosompempe. Umdlali otywine intshukumo eyimfihlo uqhuba inyathelo elibanga ukuba "liyimfihlo" ebhodini.
    1. Ukuba akunakwenzeka ukuphinda umise isikhundla, umdlalo urhoxisiwe kwaye umdlalo omtsha kufuneka udlalwe.

    Ukuba, xa uqala umdlalo kwakhona, ixesha elisetyenzisiweyo aliboniswanga kakuhle kuyo nayiphi iwotshi kwaye ukuba omnye wabadlali uyayityikitya ngaphambi kokwenza inyathelo lokuqala, impazamo kufuneka ilungisiwe. Ukuba impazamo ayiqatshelwa, umdlalo kufuneka uqhubeke ngaphandle kokulungiswa, ngaphandle kokuba usompempe uyaqonda ukuba iziphumo ziya kuba zibi kakhulu.

    Ixesha leseshoni yomdlalo nganye erhoxisiweyo liza kulawulwa liwotshi kasompempe. Amaxesha okuqala kunye nokuphela kufuneka abhengezwe kwangaphambili.

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