Damas

Madona.Cholinga ndikuti agwire kapena kufooketsa zidutswa za mdani. Wosewera yemwe amatha kudya chidutswa chilichonse cha mdani wake amapambana masewerawo. Timakambirana za umodzi mwamasewera a board odziwika bwino ndikusewera padziko lapansi.

Masewera a Checkers amasewera pakati pa osewera awiri, pa bolodi lalikulu, m'mabwalo makumi asanu ndi limodzi mphambu anayi owala ndi amdima, okhala ndi zidutswa zakuda khumi ndi ziwiri.

Zotsatira()

    Checkers: Kodi kusewera sitepe ndi sitepe?

    Kusewera ma checkers pa intaneti kwaulere, muyenera kungochita pitilizani malangizo awa:
    1. Tsegulani msakatuli amene mumakonda ndikupita patsamba lamasewera Emulator.online.
    2. Mukangolowa patsamba lino, masewerawa adzawonetsedwa pazenera. Muyenera kokha kugunda ndipo mutha kuyamba kusankha kasinthidwe komwe mumakonda koma mumakonda. Mutha kusankha pakati pakusewera ndi mnzanu, ndipo mutasankha, mudzayamba kusewera.
    3. Tsopano, mupeza mabatani ena othandiza. Kodi "Onjezani kapena chotsani mawu ", perekani batani "Play"Ndipo yambani kusewera, mutha"Imani pang'ono"Ndipo"Yambitsanso”Nthawi iliyonse.
    4. Pezani mdani wanu kuti azisuntha koma zidutswa.
    5. Mukadzaza masewera, dinani pa "Yambitsanso”Kuyambiranso.

    Masewera a Checkers: mawonekedwe

    "Damas"ndimasewera omwe adakhalapo kwazaka zambiri komanso momwe kubetcherako kumayikidwa mosinthana ndipo zidutswa zimatha kutengedwa kuchokera kwa mdani. Mumapambana pamene mdani alibe zidutswa kapena wasunthidwa kotero kuti sizingatheke kusuntha.

    Cholinga cha masewerawa "Checkers" 

    Cholinga cha "madona" ndicho  kuletsa mayendedwe mdani kapena kuchotsa zidutswa zambiri kotero kuti sangathe kuyendanso.

    Mtundu wamasewera:

    • Masewera apabanja
    • Masewera oseketsa
    • wamatsenga
    • Strategist
    • Ganizani

    Chiwerengero cha osewera, zaka ndi nthawi yosewera:

    • 2 jugadores
    • Kuyambira zaka 6

    Zida zamasewera:

    • Mapulani a chess
    • Zidutswa 12 zoyera
    • Zidutswa zakuda za 12

    Kutsiliza:

    Malamulo osavuta kwambiri motero, oyenera osewera achichepere, komanso osangalatsa achikulire.

    Mbiri ya "Madona"

    Choonadi ndi chimenecho palibe amene akudziwa ndendende kapena momwe masewerawa adayambira, koma chotsimikizika ndichakuti Madona akhala akupezeka kwa nthawi yayitali, ngakhale Plato Adanama ngati masewera omwe Greece idabwereka ku Egypt.

    Lingaliro loyamba ndilakuti mtundu wakale kwambiri wa Checkers ndimasewera omwe adapezeka pazofukula m'mabwinja Uri, Iraq. Chibwenzi cha kaboni chikuwonetsa izi masewerawa adalipo kale pafupifupi zikwi zitatu BC.

    Komabe, buku loyambali loyambirira lidagwiritsa ntchito bolodi losiyana mosiyanasiyana, zidutswa zingapo, ndipo palibe amene akudziwa kuti ndalamazo zinali zotani.

    Ku Egypt wakale, masewera amatchedwa Alquerque, yomwe imagwiritsa ntchito bolodi la 5X5, inali masewera okhudzana ndi ma checkers omwe anali kusewera kwambiri panthawiyo.

    Olemba mbiri yakale adapeza komwe adachokera 1400 BC ndipo iwo amati kutchuka kwawo kunali kwakukulu kwakuti idaseweredwa kudziko lonse lakumadzulo pazaka masauzande ndi masauzande.

    Kuzungulira 1100 AD, Mfalansa anali ndi lingaliro lokusewera cheke pa bolodi la chess. Izi zikutanthauza kukulitsa chiwerengero cha zidutswa mpaka khumi ndi ziwiri mbali iliyonse. Mtundu watsopanowu umatchedwa "Fierges"O chabwino"Ferses".

    Posakhalitsa, aku France adazindikiranso kuti kupangitsa kuti kudumpha kukhale kovomerezeka kumapangitsa masewerawa kukhala ovuta kwambiri ndipo adaganiza zoyitanira mtundu watsopanowu "Jeu mphamvu".

    Kusintha kwakale kwambiri kunkawonedwa ngati masewera ochezera azimayi ndipo amatchedwa "Le Jeu Plaisant De Dames" (The Pleasant Game of Checkers).

    Kuyambira matebulo mpaka makompyuta

    Ndi malamulo a Checkers ofotokozedwa ndi achi French, masewerawa adatumizidwa ku England ndi America, ndikupitiliza kulamulira padziko lonse lapansi. Ku G. Brittany, idalandira dzina " Zojambulajambula "komanso katswiri wamasamu wodziwika William Payne adalemba nkhani yake yokhudza kutchova juga mzaka khumi ndi zisanu ndi ziwiri mphambu makumi asanu ndi limodzi mphambu zisanu ndi chimodzi. Komabe, kwa zaka zambiri, Damas adasungabe kutchuka kwake.

    Chifukwa chake, kuchepa kwa mayendedwe a 2 kunapangidwira osewera odziwa zambiri, zomwe zimawakakamiza kuti ayambe masewerawa mwachisawawa. Masiku ano, kuchepa kwa mayendedwe atatu kumagwiritsidwa ntchito mu mpikisano.

    Madona anabwera pazowonetsera mapulogalamu a makompyuta ngakhale kale nkhondo yachiwiri yapadziko lonse. 

    Ngakhale makompyuta anali munthawi yovuta ya chitukuko, chowala Alan Turing adapanga pulogalamu yofunikira ya Madona yomwe imafuna kuti kuwerengera kuzichitika pamapepala (chifukwa makinawo sanathe kugwira ntchitoyi).

    Pomaliza, 1952 Unali chaka chodabwitsa m'mbiri yamasewera, pomwe Arthur L. Samuel adapanga fayilo ya pulogalamu yoyamba yogwiritsira ntchito kompyuta. Pang'onopang'ono, mapulogalamu amtunduwu adasintha pomwe kuthamanga ndi kuthekera kwa makompyuta kumakulirakulira.

    Mu Julayi XNUMX, gulu lochokera ku Yunivesite ya Alberta lotsogozedwa ndi a Jonathan Schaeffer adalengeza kuti athana nawo masewerawa.

    Pulogalamuyo Chinook , yapangililwa na yantu yonse, yafika pa mulandu nu kusenuka kwakwe ukwalenzile ukuti yasininkizye. Mwanjira imeneyi, gululi lidakwanitsa kutsimikizira kuti ma Checkers ndimasewera okoka, ndiye kuti, zimangokhalira kukoka ngati otsutsa onse awiri achita bwino.

    Komabe, masewerawa amapitilizabe kutchuka, pomwe anthu ochokera padziko lonse lapansi akusewera mitundu yake yosangalatsa, kuphunzitsa malingaliro awo, kapena kungosangalala ndi nthawi yabwino akusewera ndi mabanja komanso abwenzi.

    Momwe mungasewere "checkers"?

    Kukonzekera masewera

    Wosewera m'modzi amatenga zidutswa zoyera, winayo aliyense ndi zidutswa zakuda: amene amasewera mtundu wanji, osewera awiriwo amatha kusankha pakati pawo.
    Zidutswazo zimayikidwa m'mizere yakunja kwa bolodi lamasewera moyang'anizana.

    Comenzando

    Nthawi zonse komanso munthawi zonse yambani ndi zidutswa zakuda.

    Kodi imasewera bwanji?

    Zidutswazo nthawi zonse zimayikidwa mayendedwe oblique gawo loyang'ana kutsogolo. Ngati mwala uli kale m'munda, sungalandiridwe, mosasamala kanthu kuti mwala wako kapena wotsutsa uli pamunda.

    Ngati mungapeze bwalo lomwe limadutsa malo akuda ndi mwala wina, mutha kulilumpha paulendo wotsatira, bola ngati bwalolo kumbuyo kwa mwalawo lidalibe. Mumadumphira pazinthu zotsutsana kenako mutha kuzichotsa pamasewera. Kudumpha pa zidutswa zako ndikoletsedwa. Simungathe kubwerera kupatula ndi mayiyo.

    Mukafika pa mzere wapamwamba wa mdani ndi mwala wanuwosewera amalandira mfumukazi Ndani angatengepo gawo pazotsatira izi.

    La dama amadziwika kuyika zidutswa ziwiri chimodzi chimzake. Pachifukwa ichi muyenera fayilo ya chidutswa zomwe zakhala zikuchitika kuchotsedwa pamasewera.

    Ubwino wake ndikuti amatha kuchita zinthu moyang'anizana ndi nkhope mmbuyo mopondereza, ndiye kuti, mutha kusuntha magawo ambiri moyang'anizana kapena nkhope-nkhope momwe mungafunire. Kuphatikizira zidutswa zotsutsana kumachitika chimodzimodzi. Wosewera aliyense amakhala ndi mfumukazi yokwanira. Mukataya mfumukazi chifukwa chosowa chidwi, mutha kupeza mayi wachiwiri.

    Wosewera yemwe ndi woyamba kusuntha wataya.

    Kodi cholinga cha "dona" ndi chiyani?

    Muyenera kutenga chilichonse chomwe mdani wanu akumenya kapena kutchinga zidutswa zake.

    Kodi "Dama" amapeza bwanji?

    Ngati mdani sakusunthanso, mumapambana.

    "Dona" akuyenera kwa ndani?

    Masewera a "Daae" ndi Cholinga cha osewera omwe akufuna kuyesa maluso awo mwaluso ndi mwaluso awiriawiri. Zimakhala zotchuka kuyambira zaka zisanu ndi chimodzi.

    Kodi "Dona" ndi ndalama zingati?

    Kutengera wofalitsa ndi mtundu wake, "Dame" amasintha pakati mayuro khumi pamasewera osavuta komanso 63 mayuro chifukwa cha mitundu yabwino kwambiri.

    Chofunikira ndi chiyani kwa "Dona"?

    Pa njira, zochita mwanzeru, komanso kusinkhasinkha pasadakhale kuti muyambe masitima mwanzeru.

    Kodi kumenya nkhope ndi "Checkers" ndikololedwa?

    Inde, ngati mungathe kumata, mutha kuphatikizanso mbali ndi mbali .

    Mitundu ya Madona

    Zakale 

    • Mfumukazi yopanda kugwira: mfumukazi imayenda mozungulira, kudutsa malo opanda kanthu omwe akufuna, kuyang'ana kutsogolo kapena nkhope kumbuyo, osatenga chidutswa cha mtundu wina panjira ndipo sangasinthe mozungulira.
    • Mfumukazi yokhala ndi nsomba: Ngati pali chidutswa china pamagulu anu, kamvekedwe ka wotsutsana, nsomba zitha kuchitidwa pokhapokha ngati pali malo amodzi kapena angapo opanda kanthu kuseri kwa chidutswa cha mdaniyo, ndiye kuti nsomba ndizofunikira. Mfumukazi siyikakamizidwa kuti ipitilize tsamba pambuyo pa chidutswacho. Imadziwikanso padziko lonse lapansi, ili pakati pa masewera otchuka monga: chess, checkers ndi wolamulira.

    Oyang'anira achi China

    Chinese Checkers imakhala ndi nyenyezi ya 6-yolumikizidwa yolumikizidwa ndi gridi. Komwe mizere imadutsana, ndiye kuti, pamapolo, tchipisi timayikidwa. Cholinga ndi suntha matailosi 15 oyang'ana mbali ya nyenyeziyo molunjika mosiyana.

    Amayi achi Italiya 

    Malamulowo ndi ofanana ndi azimayi achikhalidwe, omwe asintha motere:

    • Bungweli lidayalidwa ndi malo oyera kumanzere.
    • Simungathe kupanga mfumukazi.
    • Ngati wosewera satenga chidutswa ngati zingatheke, amataya masewerawo.

    Amayi achingerezi 

    Malamulo omwewo monga matailosi achikhalidwe, kupatula apo wosewera mpira angasankhe kugwira chidutswa chilichonse osati njira yabwino mwa kukakamiza. Ubwino wokhawo wa mfumukazi pamtundu wamba ndikumatha kusuntha ndikugwira nkhope ndi nkhope kutsogolo.

    Amayi achi Russia 

    Zosintha zokha pamalamulo aboma ndikuti kuwombera sikokakamiza komanso kuti, ngati zingachitike kuwombera kotsatizana, chidutswacho chikadutsa mzere womaliza, chidzakwezedwa kukhala mfumukazi ndipo chidzapitilizabe. masewerawa ngati mfumukazi.

    Amayi aku Turkey

    Mwinanso azimayi achilendo kwambiri.

    Gwiritsani ntchito dashboard kasanu ndi katatu kasanu ndi kasanu. Wosewera aliyense amakhala ndi zidutswa khumi ndi zisanu ndi chimodzi ndikuziyika koyambirira pamzere wachiwiri ndi wachitatu woyandikira kwambiri.

    • Zidutswazi zimayenda orthogonally, chammbali kapena choyang'ana kutsogolo, koma osayang'ana chakumbuyo.
    • Nsombazo zimachitidwanso kutsogolo kapena kuyang'anizana ndi mbali. Chidutswa chomwe chimagwira chimapeza pamodzi kwa omwe kale anali ndi chidutswa chomwe chidalandidwa, yomwe imaponderezedwa nthawi yomweyo (poyenda konse, osati kumapeto kwenikweni).
    • Chidutswa chikamafika pamzere wapansi amakhala mfumukazi.
    • Queens imatha kusuntha mabwalo ambiri opanda kanthu momwe angafunire nkhope patsogolo, nkhope yakumbuyo kapena kuyang'anizana ndi mbali.
    • Nsomba zopangidwa ndi Mfumukazi ndizofanana ndendende ndi zidutswa zabwinobwino, kupatula kutha kudumpha mzere wa mabwalo opanda kanthu mpaka kufika pachidutswacho.
    • Nthawi iliyonse, Nsombazo ndizovomerezeka ndipo ziyenera kuchitika kuchotsa zidutswa za adani ambiri momwe zingathere.
    • Kupambana kumapangidwa ndikugwira chidutswa chilichonse cha mdani, kumulepheretsa kapena kumusiya, makamaka, chidutswa chimodzi motsutsana ndi Mfumukazi.

    Kutaya mwayi

    Kusiyanasiyana komwe malamulowo ali ofanana ndendende pamasewera ovomerezeka, koma pakusintha uku, wothamangitsidwa amapambana. Chifukwa chake, wosewerayo ayenera kupereka zidutswa zake kwa mdaniyo posachedwa.

    Madongosolo Oyendetsera Amayi

    Masewera ndi osewera

    1. Madona ndimasewera amisala idasewera pakati pa anthu awiri.
    2. Mwakutanthauzira, anthu awa ndiye osewera.

    Pangani zakuthupi

    3. Masewera a tcheki imaseweredwa pa bolodi lalikulu, ogawidwa m'mabwalo 100 ofanana, kuwala kwina ndi mdima.

    1. Imaseweredwa m'nyumba zamdima, zotchedwa nyumba zogwira ntchito.
    2. Mizere ya oblique yopangidwa ndi mabwalo amdima ndi yolumikizana, yokwana 17. Chingwe chotalika kwambiri chonse ndi mabwalo 10 ndipo cholowa m'makona awiri a bolodi, chimatchedwa lalikulu diagonal.
    3. Bungweli lidayikidwa pakati pa osewera, kotero kuti kukula kwakukulu kumayambira kumanzere kwa wosewera aliyense, motero bwalo loyamba kumanzere kwa wosewera aliyense ndi mdima.

    4. A board omwe adayikidwayo ali ndi kutsatira mayina:

    1. Maziko: mbali zonse za bolodi kutsogolo kwa osewera kapena mbale zovekedwa korona.
    2. Matebulo: zipilala zam'mbali.
    3. Zakudya: mizere yopingasa yokhala ndi mabwalo 5 amdima.
    4. Mizati: mizere yolunjika yokhala ndi mabwalo 5 amdima.

    5. Pamsonkhano, mabwalo amdima amawerengedwa kuyambira 1 mpaka 50 (Manoury notation). Manambalawa sadzasindikizidwa pa tray. Kuyang'ana bolodi kuchokera kutsogolo, manambala onsewo amayamba kuchokera kumanzere kupita kumanja, kuyambira pabwalo loyamba lamdima pamtunda wopingasa ndikumaliza mdima womaliza wapansi (Chithunzi I).

    Mutha kutsimikizira kuti:

      1. Nyumba zisanu zakuda pamunsi kapena mbale zapa coronation zimalandira kuchuluka kwa 1 mpaka 5 ndi 46 mpaka 50.
      2. Mabokosi asanu amdima omwe ali patebulo, kapena mizati yoyamba ndi yomaliza, amalembedwa ndi manambala 6, 16, 26, 36 ndi 46 kumanzere, ndi 5, 15, 25, 35 ndi 45 kumanja.
      3. Nyumba zamdima komanso zowoneka bwino kwambiri zomwe zimatchedwa ngodya zamagulu.

    6. Masewera a International Checkers amasewera ndi miyala yoyera kapena yoyera 20 ndipo Miyala 20 yakuda kapena yakuda.

    7. Masewera asanayambe, a Miyala 20 yakuda imakhala m'mabwalo kuyambira 1 mpaka 20, ndi miyala yoyera kuyambira 31 mpaka 50. Mabwalo ochokera 21 mpaka 30 adzakhala aulere (Chithunzi 2).

    Kusuntha kwa Magawo

    8. Chidutswa ndi chipembedzo chamwala ndi dona.

    9. Kutengera kuti ndi miyala kapena mfumukazi, zidutswazo zimayenda ndikusiyanasiyana. Kuyenda kwa chipinda kuchokera nyumba ina kupita ina kumatchedwa "kupereka".

    10. Kusuntha koyamba nthawi zonse kumayendetsedwa ndi zoyera zoyera. Osewera mosiyanasiyana amasewera ndi zidutswa zawo, kusuntha kamodzi.

    11. Mwala uyenera kupita patsogolo, mozungulira, kuchokera kunyumba komwe amakhala mpaka nyumba yaulere munjira ina.

    12. Mwala womwe udafika pa korona wa korona ndikukhalabe kumapeto kwa mayendedwe umakwezedwa kukhala mfumukazi. Kukhazikitsidwa kwa mwala kumadziwika ndi kukulumphira mwala wina wamtundu womwewo.

    13. Ndikulimbikitsidwa kuti mdani adakwaniritsa izi.

    14. Mwala woyendetsedwa ndi azimayi umasungabe mtunduwo, koma sichingasunthire osavala korona.

    15. Mfumukazi yomwe yangolowa kumene korona iyenera kudikirira mpaka mdani atasewera kamodzi asanasewere.

    16. Mfumukazi imatha kusunthira mbali ina, kuchokera kunyumba yomwe imayikidwa kupita kwina kulikonse, mwa kusankha kwake, pa diagonal yomwe amakhala mpaka pomwe ali mfulu.

      1. Kuyenda kwa chidutswachi kukuwoneka kuti kwatha pomwe wosewerayo awamasula atasuntha.
      2. Ngati wosewerayo akhudza chimodzi mwazosewerera zake, ayenera kusuntha.
      3. Ngati mwalawo wokhudza kapena kusuntha sunatulutsidwebe, ndikololedwa kuyiyika m'nyumba ina, ngati zingatheke.
      4. Wosewera yemwe akusuntha yemwe akufuna kuyika chidutswa chimodzi kapena zingapo pa bolodi ayenera, asanatero, ayenera kupewa mdaniyo ndi mawu oti "AJEITO".

    Lumikizanani

    17. Kutenga magawo mosemphana ndilololedwa ndipo kumachitika kutsogolo ndi kumbuyo. Kuwombera kwathunthu kumawerengedwa ngati kusuntha kumodzi komwe kumaseweredwa. Ndizoletsedwa kunyamula zidutswazo.

    18. Mwala ukakhudzana ndi mzake, mozungulira, kenako mozungulira, kenako pamakhala bwalo lopanda chopingasa chimodzimodzi. Muyenera kulumpha chidutswacho ndikukhala pabwalo laulere. Chotsutsana chimachotsedwa pagululo. Ntchito yonseyi, yomwe imatha kuchitika kutsogolo kapena kumbuyo, ndiwombera wopangidwa ndi mwalawo.

    19. Mfumukazi ndi chidutswa choyang'ana chimakhala chozungulira pafupi kapena kutali ndipo pamakhala bwalo limodzi lopanda kanthu kumbuyo kwake. mfumukazi iyenera kudutsa gawo linalo ndikukhala ndi malo aliwonse omasuka pambuyo pa chidutswacho, kusankha kwanu. Opaleshoni yotereyi imachitidwa ndi mayiyo.

    20. Malo ogulitsira ayenera kuchitika momveka bwino komanso molongosoka. Kuperewera kwa chiwonetsero chodziwikiratu cha kuwomberako ndikofanana ndi cholakwika chomwe chiyenera kukonzedwa pompempha mdaniyo. Kutenga kumatengedwa kuti kwatha pambuyo pochotsa khungu kapena mbali zotsutsana.

    21. Mwala womwe wagwira ukalumikizidwa molumikizana ndi chidutswa china, kuseri kwake kulibe malo opingasa, chidutswa chachiwiri chija chiyenera kudumpha, kenako chachitatu ndi zina zotero, kukhala m'malo omasuka pambuyo pomaliza. kusuntha. Zidutswa za otsutsana omwe agwidwawo, akamaliza kusuntha, nthawi yomweyo adachotsedwa pagululo mokweza kapena kutsika. Ntchito yonseyi imatchedwa chingwe chojambulidwa ndi mwalawo.

    22. Mfumukazi, ikamatenga, itadumpha koyamba, ili pa diagonal yomweyo, pafupi kapena patali, kuchokera mwala wina wotsutsana, womwe umakhala kuseli kwa mabwalowa kapena ena opanda kanthu, mfumukazi imadutsa gawo lachiwiri ili, kenako lachitatu ndi zina zotero ndikukhala ndi malo aulere, mwakufuna kwanu, pambuyo pa chidutswa chomaliza chomwe chatengedwa.

    Zidutswa za mdani yemwe wagwidwawo, akamaliza kusunthaku, amachotsedwa nthawi yomweyo mu board ndikukwera kapena kutsika. Ntchitoyi ndiwombani komwe mayi uja adachita.

    23. Mukumanga ndi unyolo ndikoletsedwa kudumpha nyumba.

    24. Pakumenyedwa ndi unyolo, mumaloledwa kudutsa malo opanda kanthu kangapo, koma chidutswa chotsutsana chimatha kudumpha kamodzi.

    25. Mfuti imayenera kuphedwa momveka bwino, chidutswa ndi chidutswa, kulumpha ndi kudumpha, mpaka bwalo lomaliza lifike. Kuperewera kosonyeza kuwombera kuli kofanana ndi cholakwika chomwe chiyenera kukonzedwa pempho la wotsutsa.

    26. Kuyenda kwa chidutswacho panthawi yamawombera kumadziwika kuti kwatha pomwe wosewerayo wagwetsa chidutswachoKaya kumapeto kapena pakati pa gululi.

    27. Zidutswa zomwe zidatengedwa zimatha kuchotsedwa pa tray pokhapokha kuwombera kwa unyolo kutatsirizidwa. Zidutswa zomwe zidalandidwa amachotsedwa gulu likangotha ndikukwera kapena kutsika komwe adalumphira,

    Popanda zosokoneza. Kuchotsa mosadukiza kwa zidutswazo ndikofanana ndi vuto lomwe liyenera kukonzedwa pompempha mdaniyo.

    28. Kuchotsedwa kwa zidutswa kumadziwika kuti ndi kwathunthu pomwe wosewera amachotsa zotsalira zomwe zidatengedwa kapena Kuphedwa kwa ntchito kwaima.

    29. Kutenga zidutswa zochuluka momwe zingathere mumsanawo ndilololedwa. Pogwiritsa ntchito lamuloli, mfumukazi siyikakamiza kapena kupereka udindo uliwonse. Mfutiyo, mayiyo ndi mwalawo amafanana.

    30. Ngati zidutswa zomwe zingatengedwe, m'njira ziwiri kapena zingapo, zili zofanana, wosewerayo ali ndi ufulu wosankha izi, kaya ndi mwala kapena mfumukazi, kamodzi kokha kapena kangapo.

    31. Kutsimikizika pa Nkhani 3.5Mwala womwe unyolo udawombedwa umangodutsa nyumba imodzi yapa crossbar yokhotakhota, kumapeto kwake ndikadali mwala.

    Zoyipa

    32. Ngati pamasewera apezeka kuti komitiyi idayikidwa molakwika, poganizira nkhani 2.4, masewerawa ayenera kuthetsedwa ndikuyambiranso.

    33. Zomwe zalembedwazi 2.8 ziyenera kutsimikiziridwa masewera asanayambe. Zovuta zilizonse zomwe zimapezeka pamasewera zimathetsedwa ngati nkhani 5.4.

    34. Chidutswa chilichonse chomwe chili pabwalo lopanda kanthu (chowonekera) sagwira ntchito ndipo kumapeto kwake ingayambitsidwenso molingana ndi chinthu 5.4.

    35. Ngati wosewerayo achita chimodzi mwazosokonekera zotsatirazi, ndi mdani yekhayo muli ndi ufulu wosankha ngati kusowekaku kuyenera kukonzedwa kapena kusungidwa. Zovuta:

    36. Sewerani mayendedwe awiri motsatana.

    37. Pangani mayendedwe osasinthasintha a mwala kapena dona.

    38. Sewerani nokha zidutswa ndikusewera china.

    39. Bwererani chimodzi mpikisano watha.

    40. Sewerani chidutswa cha mdani.

    41. Sewerani chidutswa pamene ndizotheka kugwira.

    42. Chotsani zidutswa za mdani kapena kukhala ndi gulu popanda chifukwa.

    43. Tengani zidutswa zochepa kapena zochepa kuposa momwe lamulo limanenera.

    44. Imani chisanafike kumapeto kwa cholembera.

    45. Chotsani chidutswa cha mbale, chosakanizika bwino, pulagi isanathe.

    46. ​​Chotsani pambuyo pogwidwa. zosakwana kuchuluka kwa zidutswa zomwe zatengedwa.

    47. Chotsani, mutagwidwa, ziwalo zomwe sizinatengedwe.

    48. Lekani kukoka ziwalo pa chingwe chachitsulo.

    49. Pambuyo pogwidwa; chotsani gawo lanu limodzi kapena angapo.

    50. Ngati, chifukwa changozi, pali kusintha kapena kuchotsa malo osewerera, izi, zotsimikizika panthawiyo, sizingaganizidwe kuti ndizosavomerezeka.

    51. Ngati wosewera wakana kutsatira malamulo a masewerawo, mdaniyo ali ndi ufulu wokakamiza.

    52. Kusuntha kulikonse kopangidwa ndi wotsutsana ndi wosewera yemwe wachita zosalongosoka kapena yemwe akukana kutsatira malamulo abata ndikofanana kuvomereza izi. Mwanjira imeneyi, ufulu wokonzanso umatha.

    53. Kukonzanso pang'ono kwa a kusakhazikika kapena kulakwira.

    Za kuzungulira

    53. Masewerawa amawerengedwa ngati kukoka pomwe malo omwewo awonetsedwa kachitatu ndipo wosewera yemweyo ndi amene amayendetsa gululi.

    54. Zikutsimikizika kuti nthawi ya 25 mayendedwe otsatizana, ma checkers okha ndi omwe amapangidwa, osatenga kapena kusuntha mwalawo, masewerawa amawerengedwa kuti amakoka.

    55. Ngati palibe zidutswa zoposa zitatu, zidutswa ziwiri ndi mwala umodzi, chidutswa chimodzi ndi miyala iwiri yolimbana ndi chidutswa, chomaliza chimawerengedwa kuti ndi tayi patadutsa khumi.

    66. Kutha kwa mafumukazi awiri: Mfumukazi ndi mwala kapena Mfumukazi yolimbana ndi Mfumukazi. imawerengedwa kuti ndi tayi patadutsa kasanu.

    Zotsatira

    77. Zotsatira zamasewera zili ndi zotsatira ziwiri:

    1.  Kupambana kwa mnzake, ndipo chifukwa chake kugonjetsedwa kwa winayo.
    2. Lumikizani pomwe palibe wosewera amene angathe kupambana.

    78. Wosewerayo amapambana pomwe wotsutsana naye:

        1. Siyani masewera.
        2. Mukasuntha, simungathe kusewera.
        3. Mwataya zidutswa zonse.
        4. Amakana kutsatira malamulo.

    79. Tayi imachitika pamene:

    1. Othandizana nawo amafotokoza izi mogwirizana.
    2. Kugwiritsa ntchito zomwe zaperekedwa m'nkhani 6.
    3. Pomwe palibe wosewera yemwe angapambane.

    Mawu

    80. Pochotsa manambala kuyambira 1 mpaka 50, molingana ndi nkhani 2.6., Ndikotheka kuwona mayendedwe a zidutswazo, kuyenda ndi kuyenda, zonse zakuda ndi zoyera, kujambula masewera onse.

    81. Zolemba za gululi ziyenera kuchitika motere:

    1. Nambala yoyambira nyumba ya gawolo lotsatiridwa ndi nambala yoyambira ya gawolo.
    2. Manambala awiriwa akutsatiridwa ndi dash (-) kuyenda kosavuta.
    3. Potenga manambala adzalekanitsidwa ndi a (x).

    Zizindikiro wamba

    82. Pofuna kufotokoza momveka bwino, zizindikiro zotsatirazi zimagwiritsidwa ntchito posonyeza:

        1. Kusuntha: -
        2. Kunyamuka: x
        3. Kusewera bwino kapena kuyenda mwamphamvu:!
        4. Mphatso yokwanira kapena yamphamvu kwambiri: !!
        5. Chofooka kapena choyipa 😕
        6. Chopereka chofooka kwambiri kapena chosauka:??

    Nthawi yoyang'anira

    83. Titha kuvomereza kuti pamasewera wosewera aliyense amakakamizidwa kutero pangani mayendedwe angapo pakanthawi kochepa.

    84. Poterepa, osewera ayenera:

        1. Valani wotchi yapadera yampikisano.
        2. Lembani kusuntha pambuyo pa kusuntha, kwa onse akuda ndi oyera, masewera onse.

    85. A nthawi yamasewera onse.

    86. Poterepa, kugwiritsa ntchito wotchi yampikisano ndilololedwa, koma cholembera sichifunika.

    87. Kuvala wotchi imayang'aniridwa ndi malamulo ndi mpikisano.

    Masewera ena

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