Chess

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    Chess: Momwe mungasewere sitepe ndi sitepe 🙂

    Kusewera Chess pa intaneti kwaulere, tsatirani malangizo awa ndi gawo:

    Paso 1. Tsegulani msakatuli amene mumakonda ndikupita patsamba la masewera Emulator.online.

    Paso 2. Mukangolowa patsamba lino, masewerawa adzawonetsedwa kale pazenera. Muyenera kutero kugunda.

    Gawo la 3. Pulatifomu imakupatsani mwayi wosankha pakati pa kusewera ndi loboti kapena kusewera ndi munthu wina yemwe muli nanu. Kodi "Onjezani kapena chotsani mawu", sankhani"Mulingo wamasewera"Ikani chithunzichi"chophimba"ndipo mwakonzeka!.

    Gawo la 4. Cholinga chanu ndikusiya mfumu osayenda kulikonse, kukumbukira nthawi zonse malamulo amasewera. KU

    Gawo la 5. Mukamaliza masewera, dinani makonda kuti musewenso.

    Onaninso fayilo ya Malamulo A Chess Ovomerezeka ngati mukufuna kudziwa fayilo ya malamulo apadziko lonse lapansi ya masewera otchukawa.

    Kodi Chess ndi chiyani?Rey

    Chess ndi a masewera a bolodi zosangalatsa komanso mpikisano wa osewera awiri. Imapangidwa pa bolodi lalikulu ndipo imagawidwa m'mabwalo 64, mosiyanasiyana wakuda ndi woyera. Kumbali imodzi kuli zidutswa zoyera 16 ndipo mbali inayo nambala yofanana ya zidutswa zakuda.

    Wosewera aliyense ali ndi ufulu wosuntha kamodzi. Cholinga cha masewerawa ndikuyang'ana mdani.

    Ndi masewera omwe amafunikira kulingalira mwanzeru ndi njira, Sichikuphatikizapo mwayi, kupatula kujambula kwamitundu koyambirira kwamasewera.

    MaseweraTorre

    Bungwe la chess lili nalo Mabwalo 64 amagawidwa mzati 8 (ofukula) ndi mizere 8 (yopingasa), iliyonse ndi mabwalo 8. Nyumbazi zimakhala zakuda komanso zopepuka. Bwalo loyamba kumanzere kwa bolodi liyenera kukhala malo akuda ndipo malo omaliza kumanja oyera.

    Mzere uliwonse umasankhidwa ndi kalata yoyambira A mpaka H, pomwe mizere imasankhidwa ndi nambala yochokera ku 1 pa 8 . Mwanjira imeneyi, malo onse amakhala ndi chilembo ndi nambala yolingana ndi mzati ndi mzere (a1, b6, f5, etc.). Izi ndi dongosolo lokhazikika pamipikisano yovomerezekas.

    Bungwe la Chess

    Zidutswa za chessBishopu

    Wosewera aliyense ali nawo Magawo a 16, Komanso yogawika kukhala kuwala komanso mdima. Zidutswazo, malinga ndi mtengo wake:

    Zidutswa za chess

    Zindikirani: Osewera ena samawawona ngati zidutswa ngati zidutswa. Zomwe zidutswazo zimatha kusiyanasiyana, kuphatikiza kutengera komwe chidutswa chidali.

    Kumayambiriro kwa masewerawa, zidutswazo zimagawidwa pa bolodi motere: zidutswa zoyera zimayikidwa pamzere woyamba, otetezedwa ndi mzere wa ziphuphu mu mzere 2, pomwe zidutswa zakuda zili pamzere wa 8 ndipo zidindo zake zili pa 7. Zindikirani pansipa:

    Nambala chess

    Oyamba kumene nthawi zambiri amasokoneza udindo wa Mfumu ndi Mfumukazi, koma kuti zikhale zosavuta, ingokumbukirani Mfumukazi nthawi zonse imayamba masewerawa pokhala malo amtundu womwewo (White Queen ku White House, Black Queen ku Black House).

    Choncho, mfumukazi yoyera imakhala pa D1 lalikulu, pomwe mfumukazi yakuda imakhala m'bwalalo D8. Kukhazikitsa kumeneku kumagwiritsidwa ntchito polepheretsa kuti Mfumukazi iwonongedwe pomwe amatsegulira, monga zingachitike ngati Mfumukazi yotsutsana ikadakhala mgulu lomwelo.

    Bungweli lagawika mapiko awiri:

    • Mapiko a Mfumukazi
    • Mapiko amfumu

    Zidutswazo zimatchulidwa ndi mapiko ake. Nsanja mkati a1 y a8Mwachitsanzo, amatchedwa Tower-Dona, pomwe nsanja zili mkati h1 ndi h8, Torre-Rei. Zomwezo zimachitika ndi zidutswa zina, ndipo ngakhale ndi zikwangwani, zomwe zimatchedwa chidutswa chomwe amateteza. Khwangwala mkati e2 ndi mfumu ya ziphuphu, ziphuphu mkati d2, mfumukazi ya nkhuku, nkhwangwa mkati f2 amatchedwa mfumu ya mabishopu-bishop ndi pawn in c2, mfumukazi ya mabishopu-bishopu, ndi zina zotero.

    Mbiri ya Chesspawn

    Mbiri ya Chess

    Chess ndimasewera akale kwambiri kuti, kwa zaka zonse zomwe idalipo, panali nkhani zosiyanasiyana zogwirizana ndi chiyambi chake.

    Chiyambi cha Chess ku India

    Nkhani yoyamba kufotokozedwa padziko lonse lapansi imachitika mu India. Panali mzinda wawung'ono wotchedwa Taligana, ndi mwana yekhayo wa amphamvu Rajah anafa pankhondo yamagazi.

    Rajah adakhumudwa ndipo sanathe kutaya imfa ya mwana wake wamwamuna. Vuto lalikulu linali loti rajah sanangomwalira pang'ono ndi pang'ono, komanso ananyalanyaza ufumu wake. Zinangotsala pang'ono kuti ufumuwo ugwe kwathunthu.

    Powona kugwa kwa ufumu, wachibrahmin wotchedwa Lahur Sessa, tsiku lina adapita kwa mfumu ndipo adamupatsa bolodi lokhala ndi mabwalo 64, akuda ndi oyera, kuphatikiza zidutswa zingapo zomwe zimaimira mokhulupirika asitikali ankhondo ake, oyenda pansi, okwera pamahatchi, akasinja, oyendetsa njovu, vizier wamkulu ndi Rajah mwini.

    Wansembe adauza rajah kuti masewerawa amatha kukhazika mtima pansi ndipo zitha kuchiritsa kukhumudwa.. M'malo mwake, zilizonse zomwe a Brahman adanena kuti zidachitika, a Rajah adalamuliranso ufumu wake, ndikuchotsa zovuta zomwe adakumana nazo.

    Zinali zosamvetsetseka momwe zonse zinachitikira, ndi bolodi limodzi lokhala ndi zidutswa zomwe zidathetsa chisoni cha rajah. Monga mphotho, a brahmin adapatsidwa mwayi wofunsa zomwe amafuna. Poyamba, anakana mwayi wotere, chifukwa amaganiza kuti sanayenere kulandira izi, koma molimbikitsidwa ndi Rajah, adangopempha.

     

    Brahmin amangopempha njere ya tirigu pabwalo loyamba lomwe linali pabwalopo, ziwiri zachiwiri, zinayi pachachitatu, zisanu ndi zitatu chachinayi ndi zina zotero mpaka chimango chomaliza. Rajah adasangalatsidwa ndi naivete wa pempholi.

    Komabe, pempho lodzichepetsa la Brahmin silinali lodzichepetsa kwambiri. Atatha kuwerengera kuchuluka kwa tirigu yemwe angamupatse, adazindikira kuti zingatenge zokolola zonse zaufumu zaka zikwi ziwiri zabwino kukwaniritsa pempho la wansembe.

    Atachita chidwi ndi luntha la a brahmin, a rajah adamuyitana kuti akhale wamkulu wa vizier (mtundu wa minisitala, mlangizi wa rajah) waufumu, ndipo Sessa anamukhululukira ngongole yake yayikulu ndi tirigu.

    M'malo mwake, zomwe brahmin adapereka kwa rajah sinali masewera a chess, anali chaturanga, chimodzi mwazosiyana kwambiri pamasewera amakono a chess.

    Chiyambi cha Mythology

    Kuthekera kwina kwakukulu komwe kumadza munkhani zosiyanasiyana za chiyambi cha chess ndikuti Ares, Mulungu wa Nkhondo, akadapanga bolodi kuti ayese machenjerero ake ankhondo (zomwe zinali zochepa kwambiri, popeza Ares sankadziwika kuti anali ndi machenjerero pankhondo zake, amangokhala wankhanza, akumenya popanda kulongosola nthawi zambiri).

    Komabe, chidutswa chilichonse cha gululo chimayimira gawo lina lankhondo lake, ndipo zidachitikadi, mpaka Ares adakhala ndi mwana wamwamuna wakufa, ndikumupatsa maziko a masewerawa. Pambuyo pake, masewerawa akadakwanitsa kudziwa zamunthu.

    Evolution ya Chess mu Mbiri

    Amadziwika kuti entre 1450 y 1850, chess inayamba kukhala ndi kusintha kooneka poyerekeza ndi zomwe tikudziwa lero. Munali munthawi imeneyi pomwe zidutswa zingapo zidasuntha zomwe tikudziwa lero, zachidziwikire, mayendedwe onse ndi zidutswa zochokera ku Chaturanga.

    Njovu (yemwe adatsogolera bishopu wamakono) amangoyenda modumpha kawiri. Vizier (yemwe adalowererapo mfumukazi) ndi nyumba yokhayokha. Oyenda pansi samakhoza kusuntha mabwalo awiri koyamba ndikusintha ma castling kudalibe. Mabwana Amangokwezedwa kukhala vizier, yemwe anali chidutswa chofooka kwambiri, pambuyo pa pawn, chifukwa cha kuchepa kwawo.

    Malamulo a chess omwe tikudziwa lero adayamba kupangidwa 1475, simukudziwa kumene chiyambi ichi chidachitikira. Olemba mbiri ena amasiyana pakati Spain ndi Italy.

    Munali munthawi imeneyi pomwe oyenda pansi adayamba kuyenda momwe tikudziwira lero, zomwe zimaphatikizapo kusuntha mabwalo awiri poyenda koyamba ndikutenga oyenda ena kuchokera kudutsa .

    akazi a chess

    Pa nthawi imeneyo, mayendedwe atsopano a mabishopu ndi mfumukazi adatanthauzidwanso ndipo, chofunikira kwambiri, mfumukaziyi idakhala gawo lofunikira kwambiri pamasewerawa, pokhala yekhayo wokhoza kusuntha kulikonse ndikusunthira patsogolo kapena kubwerera m'mabwalo ambiri momwe amafunira.

    Kusuntha kwa zidutswazo, limodzi ndi malamulo ena onse omwe amakhala mu chess yonse, adangosinthidwa mwalamulo pakati pazaka za zana lino. XIX, ndipo malamulowa akadalipo mpaka pano.

    Mitundu ya Chess

    Kwa iwo omwe amasewera chess monga zosangalatsa, kapena kwa anthu wamba pamasewera, Masewera a chess amasewera nthawi zonse pakati pa osewera awiri pa bolodi limodzi.

    Komabe, pamasewerawa, masewera samachitika motere, ndipo pali njira zambiri kuposa momwe mungaganizire poyamba. Kuyambira ndi nthawi yayitali yamasewera, yomwe imatha kusiyanasiyana kuyambira mphindi zochepa mpaka maola kapena masiku kuti alengezedwe, nthawi zina popanda kupha wosewera aliyense.

    Masewera omwe akatswiri amachita nthawi zambiri amagwiritsa ntchito mawotchi omwe amayang'anira nthawi ya wosewera aliyense. Nthawi zina wosewera amatha kusewera motsutsana ndiopikisana m'mabwalo osiyanasiyana. Ma tebulo sakhala ozungulira nthawi zonse komanso pali machitidwe a chess omwe ali ndi zidutswa 36. Mutha kusewera chess osawona bolodi!

    Tsopano tiwona fayilo ya mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya chess ndi mwayi wambiri wopanga masewerawa kukhala osangalatsa komanso ovuta.

    chess ziphuphu

    Masewera a Chess Mkalasi

    Ndizo miyambo ya chess, pomwe osewera amakumana maso ndi maso kutsogolo kwa bolodi.

    pafupifupi

    Ndi njira yomwe osewera amagwiritsa ntchito makompyuta olumikizidwa pa intaneti kapena pa netiweki yakomweko, kutsatira malamulo omwewo monga chikhalidwe chess.

    Mphezi (Blitz)

    Ndikosiyanasiyana kwa chess wachikhalidwe momwe muli Mphindi 15 malire a osewera aliyense. Mwanjira imeneyi, akatswiri ochita masewera safunika kulemba zolemba zawo.

    Masewera a Chess Amodzi

    Mumasewera a chess munthawi yomweyo, wosewera chess amasewera motsutsana ndiopikisana m'mabwalo osiyanasiyana.

    Akhungu

    Mwanjira imeneyi wosewera samatero onani bolodiMwina pogwiritsira ntchito vending kapena chipinda china. Masewera akhungu Zimatengera kukumbukira kwa wosewera chess, yemwe ayenera kukongoletsa malo a komiti ndikuwunika bwino.

    Chess Yaposachedwa

    El positi kapena kalata chess, monga amadziwika, ndi a Mitundu ya chess imachita kutali, ndi makalata. Poyamba, osewera chess amatumiza zotsatsa zawo kudzera m'makalata kapena mapositi kadi, koma pakapita nthawi komanso kupita patsogolo kwaukadaulo, masiku ano ndizotheka kugwiritsa ntchito maimelo, ndikuchepetsa kwambiri nthawi yodikira yankho.

    Chidziwitso cha njirayi ndi chosiyana ndi zikhalidwe za chess, makamaka chifukwa zimachitidwa ndi anthu padziko lonse lapansi, olankhula zilankhulo zosiyanasiyana. Epistolary chess ili ndi yake mgwirizano wapadziko lonse lapansi(ICCF).

     

    Malamulo A Chess Ovomerezeka

    MALAMULO OTSOGOLERA PAMasewera

    1. Zolinga zamasewera a chess.

    1.1 Masewera a chess amasewera pakati pa otsutsa awiri omwe amasuntha zidutswa pa bolodi lalikulu lotchedwa 'gulu la chess'. Iye wosewera ndi zidutswa zoyera amayamba masewerawo. Wosewera amanenedwa kuti 'ali ndi mwayi wosewera' pomwe wopikisana naye wapanga. (Onani Nkhani 6.7)

    1.2 Cholinga cha wosewera aliyense ndi kuyika mfumu ya wotsutsana naye 'pachiwopsezo' m'njira yoti mdani asagwire mwalamulo. Wosewera yemwe wakwaniritsa cholinga ichi akuti amapha mfumu ya wotsutsana ndikupambana machesi. Sikuloledwa kusiya kapena kuyika mfumu yanu pachiwopsezo, kapena kugwira mfumu ya mdani wanu. Wotsutsana yemwe mfumu yake idawunika adataya masewerawo.

    1.3 Masewerawa ndi tayi ngati zikubweretsa udindo komwe palibe wosewera yemwe alibe mwayi wowunika.

    2. Malo oyambira zidutswa zomwe zili pa bolodi.

    2.1 Chessboard imapangidwa ndi netiweki ya 8 × 8 ndimabwalo 64 masheya ofanana ofananaazungu') ndi mdima (malowa)wakuda').

    Bungweli lidayikidwa pakati pa osewera m'njira yoti lalikulu pakona kumanja kwa wosewera aliyense akhale woyera.

    2.2 Kumayambiriro kwa masewerawa, wosewera ali ndi zidutswa za 16 zoyera ("zoyera"); inayo ili ndi zidutswa zakuda 16 (zakuda "):

    Magawo awa ndi awa:

    • Mfumu yoyera, kawirikawiri amawonetsedwa ndi chizindikiro.
    • Dona woyera, yosonyezedwa ndi chizindikiro.
    • Nsanja ziwiri zoyera, yosonyezedwa ndi chizindikiro.
    • Aepiskopi awiri oyera, yosonyezedwa ndi chizindikiro.
    • Akavalo awiri oyera, yosonyezedwa ndi chizindikiro.
    • Ziphuphu zisanu ndi zitatu zoyera, yosonyezedwa ndi chizindikiro.
    • Mfumu yakuda, yosonyezedwa ndi chizindikiro.
    • Dona wakuda, yosonyezedwa ndi chizindikiro.
    • Nsanja ziwiri zoyera, yosonyezedwa ndi chizindikiro.
    • Aepiskopi awiri akuda, yosonyezedwa ndi chizindikiro.
    • Akavalo awiri akuda, yosonyezedwa ndi chizindikiro.

    2.3 Malo oyambira zidutswazo ndi izi:

    2.4 Nyumba zisanu ndi zitatu zokonzedwa mozungulira zimatchedwa 'mizati'. Nyumba zisanu ndi zitatu zokonzedwa mopingasa zimatchedwa 'mizere'. Mzere wowongoka wamagawo amtundu womwewo, ukusunthira kuchokera kumapeto amodzi a bolodi kupita pafupi, umatchedwa 'diagonal'.

    3. Kusuntha kwa zidutswazo.

    3.1 Sikuloledwa kusunthira chidutswa pabwalo lomwe lakhalapo kale ndi mtundu wina wamtundu womwewo. Chidutswa chikasunthidwira kubwalo lomwe lili ndi chidutswa cha mdani, womalizirayo amatengedwa ndikuchotsedwa pagululo ngati gawo limodzi. Chidutswa chimanenedwa kuti chikuukira chidutswa cha mdani ngati chitha kugwira pamalopo, malinga ndi Zolemba 3.2 mpaka

    Chidutswa chimawerengedwa kuti chiziukira bwalo, ngakhale malowo ataletsedwa kusunthira kubwaloli, chifukwa chitha kusiya kapena kuyika mfumu yakeyo pachiwopsezo.

    3.2 Bishopu amatha kusunthira kumalo aliwonse oyandikana ndi diagonal.

    3.3 Bishopu amatha kusunthira pamalo aliwonse pafupi ndi fayiloyo kapena mzere womwe ulipo.

    3.4 Mfumukazi imatha kusunthira kubwalo lililonse m'mbali mwake, mzere, kapena kulumikizana kwake.

    3.5 Popanga izi, bishopu, rook kapena mfumukazi sangathe kudumpha chilichonse panjira yawo.

    3.6 Knight imatha kusunthira kubwalo limodzi loyandikira kwambiri komwe limakhalamo. Dziwani kuti sikweya yomwe knight ingasunthire siyikhala m'mbali yomweyo, mzere, kapena opendekera.

    3.7 kuti. Pewayo imatha kusunthidwa kupita pakona, pomwepo patsogolo pake, pa fayilo yomweyo, yomwe simukhalamo, kapena

    3.7.1 Pakusuntha koyamba, chikwangwani chimatha kusunthidwa monga tafotokozera mu 3.7.a; Kapenanso, mutha kusuntha nyumba ziwiri m'mbali yomweyo, bola ngati zonse zilibe, kapena

    3.7.2 Phukusi limatha kusunthira pabwalo lokhala ndi chidutswa cha mdani, lomwe lili mozungulira patsogolo pake, mu fayilo yoyandikana nayo, kuti igwire chidutswacho.

    3.7.3 Khola lomwe limagunda malo owoloka ndi khola la mdani yemwe wangopitilira mabwalo awiri posunthira kamodzi kuchokera pa malo ake oyambilira lingathe kulanda nkhwangwa zotsutsana ngati kuti zangosuntha malo amodzi.

    Izi zitha kuchitika pokhapokha ngati zatchulidwazi ndipo amatchedwa socket ya 'en passant'.

    3.7.4. Pewulo ikafika patali kwambiri poyerekeza ndi poyambira, iyenera kusinthanitsidwa ngati gawo limodzi pa bwalo lomwelo la mfumukazi, rook, bishopu, kapena Knight wofanana ndi pawn. Kusankha kwa wosewera sikumangokhala pazidutswa zomwe zagwidwa kale pamasewera.

    Kusinthana kwa pawn ndi chidutswa china kumatchedwa 'kupititsa patsogolo' ndipo chidutswa chatsopanocho ndichachangu.

    3.8 Pali njira ziwiri zosunthira mfumu: sunthani mfumu kupita kunyumba yoyandikana nayo yomwe sichiwonongeka ndi imodzi kapena zingapo za mdaniyo.

    Itha kukhalanso kudzera 'kugwedezeka'. Uku ndikusuntha komwe kudachitika ndi mfumu ndi imodzi mwazoyala, za mtundu womwewo pamzere woyamba wa wosewerayo, kuwonedwa ngati mfumu imodzi yosuntha ndikuphedwa motere: mfumu imasamutsidwa kuchoka kunyumba yake yoyambirira kupita nyumba ziwiri kulinga nsanja yomwe ili munyumba yake yoyambirira, kenako nsanjayo imasamutsidwa kupita kunyumba yomwe mfumu yangodutsa kumene.

    (1) Ufulu wofalitsa:

    1. ngati mfumu yasunthidwa kale, kapena
    2. ndi nsanja yomwe yasunthidwa kale

    (2) Castling sakuloledwa kwakanthawi:

    1. ngati malo omwe mfumu ili, kapena malo omwe akuyenera kupitako, kapena malo omwe akukhalamo, awombeledwa ndi chidutswa chimodzi kapena zingapo za mdaniyo, kapena
    2. ngati pali chidutswa pakati pa mfumu ndi rook choti muponyepo.

    3.9 Amanenedwa kuti amfumu akuyang'aniridwa ngati atagonjetsedwa ndi chidutswa chimodzi kapena zingapo za mdaniyo, ngakhale zidutswazo zitakanidwa, ndiye kuti, amaletsedwa kutuluka mnyumbayo, chifukwa atha kusiya kapena kuyang'anira mfumu yawo.

    Palibe chidutswa chomwe chimasunthira kapena kuyalutsa mfumu yake.

    4. Chochita posuntha zidutswazo.

    4.1 Kusuntha kulikonse kuyenera kuchitidwa ndi dzanja limodzi.

    4.2 Malingana ngati afotokozeratu cholinga chake pasadakhale (mwachitsanzo, kunena kuti ndapeza "j'adoube" kapena "Ndimasintha"), wosewera yemwe ali ndi nthawi yoti azitha kusewera atha kutenga chidutswa chimodzi kapena zingapo mnyumba zake.

    4.3 Pokhapokha ngati kwanenedwa mu Article 4.2, ngati wosewerayo yemwe mwayi wake wakhudza ukukhudza

    1. mwadala chidutswa chimodzi kapena zingapo za bolodi, ayenera kusewera chidutswa choyamba chokhudza chomwe chingasunthidwe, kapena
    1. chidutswa chimodzi kapena zingapo za mdani wake, ayenera kutenga chidutswa choyamba chokhudza, chomwe chitha kugwidwa, kapena

    Chidutswa chimodzi cha utoto uliwonse, ayenera kutenga chidutswa cha mdaniyo ndi chidutswa chake kapena, ngati izi siziloledwa, suntha kapena kutenga chidutswa choyamba chomwe chingaseweredwe kapena kugwidwa. Ngati sizikudziwika kuti chidutswa chanji chomwe chidaseweredwa kale, chidutswa cha wosewerayo chikuyenera kuonedwa kuti chidaseweredwa pamaso pa wotsutsana naye.

    4.4 Ngati wosewerayo atembenukira:

    1. gwirani mwadala mfumu yanu ndipo rook iyenera kuponyera pamapiko awa ngati kusunthaku kuli kovomerezeka.
    1. amakhudza mwadala kenako mfumu yake, saloledwa kukhazikika pa phiko ili ndikusunthaku ndipo zinthu zikuyenera kuwongoleredwa ndi Article 4.3.a
    1. Ndi cholinga choponyera, zimakhudza mfumu kapena mfumu komanso rook nthawi yomweyo, koma kuponya mbali iyi ndikosaloledwa, wosewerayo ayenera kusunthanso mwalamulo ndi mfumu yawo (yomwe ingaphatikizepo nyumba yachifumu mbali inayo). Ngati mfumu sinasunthe mwalamulo, wosewerayo ali womasuka kupanga zisankho zina zalamulo.
    1. imalimbikitsa chikwangwani, kusankha kwa chidutswacho kumamalizidwa pokhapokha chidutswacho chikakhudza malo opititsira patsogolo.
      1. Ngati palibe chidutswa chilichonse chomwe chakhudzidwa sichingasunthidwe kapena kugwidwa, wosewerayo atha kusuntha mwalamulo.
      1. Chidutswa chikamagwa panyumba, chifukwa chakusuntha mwalamulo kapena gawo lina lalamulo, sichingasamutsidwe ku nyumba ina. Gululi limawerengedwa kuti lamaliza:
    1. pankhani ya kugwidwa, chidutswa chomwe chatengedwa chikachotsedwa pa bolodi ndipo wosewerayo, atayika chidutswa chake pabwalo latsopanolo, watulutsa chidutswa chomwe chalandidwa m'manja mwake;
    1. pankhani yokhudza kuponya, pomwe wosewerayo adamasula rook m'manja mwake pabwalo lomwe mfumu idadutsapo kale. Wosewerayo atamasula mfumuyo m'manja, kusunthaku sikukwaniritsidwa, koma wosewerayo alibe ufulu wopanga china chilichonse kupatula nyumba yachifumu pamapiko amenewo, ngati izi ndizololedwa;
    1. pankhani yakukweza pawn, pomwe pawn wachotsedwa pa bolodi ndipo dzanja la wosewerayo latulutsa chidutswa chatsopano atachiyika pabwalo lazamalonda. Ngati wosewerayo watulutsa kale chikwangwani chomwe chidafika pabokosi lakumanja, kusunthaku sikunachitike, koma wosewerayo alibe mwayi woti azisewera

    oyenda pansi kupita kunyumba ina.

    Mlingowu umawerengedwa kuti ndi wololeza mukakwaniritsa zonse zofunikira mu Article 3. Ngati kusunthaku kulibe lamulo, kusunthanso kwina kuyenera kuchitidwa monga tafotokozera mu Article 4.5

    4.7 Wosewerayo ataya ufulu wodandaula za kuphwanya kwa nkhani 4 ya mdani, kuyambira pomwe amakhudza chidutswa mwadala.

    5. Kutha kwa kunyamuka

    5.1 Masewerawa amapambanidwa ndi wosewera yemwe amayang'anira mfumu ya mdani wake. Izi zimamaliza masewerawa nthawi yomweyo, bola kusuntha komwe kumapangitsa kuti malowedwewo akhale ovomerezeka.

    Ngati masewera apambanidwa ndi wosewera yemwe wotsutsana naye anena kuti achoka. Izi zimamaliza masewerawa nthawi yomweyo.

    5.2  Masewerawa amakopedwa pomwe wosewera yemwe sanatengepo gawo mwalamulo ndipo mfumu yake siyolamulidwa. Masewerawa akuti adatha ndi mfumu "kumira." Izi zimamaliza masewerawa bola ngati kusuntha komwe kwatulutsa malo ogulitsira ndizovomerezeka.

    1. masewerawa amakokedwa pomwe paliwonekera pomwe palibe wosewera yemwe angayang'anire mfumu ya mdani wake kudzera pamachitidwe angapo ovomerezeka. Masewerawa akuti adatha ndi "malo akufa." Izi zimamaliza masewerawa bola ngati kusuntha komwe kuli pamalamulo kuli kovomerezeka (onani Article 9.6)
    2. Masewerawa amachitika mwa mgwirizano pakati pa osewera pamasewera. Izi zimamaliza masewerawa nthawi yomweyo. (Onani Nkhani 9.1)
    3. Masewerawa amatha kujambulidwa ngati malo ofanana amawonekera kapena awonekera pa bolodi katatu. (Onani Nkhani 9.2)
    4. Masewerawa atha kukhala okoka ngati osewera apita motsatizana motsatizana popanda kusuntha chilichonse komanso osatenga chilichonse. (Onani Nkhani 50)

    MALAMULO OPANGANA

    6. Wotchi ya chess

    6.1. 'Chess wotchi' amatanthauza wotchi yokhala ndi oyang'anira nthawi ziwiri, yolumikizidwa m'njira yoti m'modzi yekha akhoza kugwira ntchito nthawi imodzi.

    'Clock' mu Malamulo a Chess amatanthauza imodzi mwamawonedwe awiriwo. Wotchi iliyonse imakhala ndi muvi.

    'Dontho Lamavi' limatanthauza kutha kwa nthawi yomwe wosewera wapatsidwa.

    6.2. Mukamagwiritsa ntchito wotchi ya chess, wosewera aliyense ayenera kupanga zosachepera zochepa kapena zosunthika munthawi yopatsidwa ndipo / kapena nthawi yowonjezera ingaperekedwe mukamayenda. Zonsezi ziyenera kutchulidwa pasadakhale.

    Nthawi yopulumutsidwa ndi wosewera nthawi imodzi imawonjezeredwa munthawi yotsatira, kupatula mawonekedwe a "kuchedwa kwa nthawi".

    Potengera "kuchedwa kwa nthawi", Osewera onsewa amapatsidwa 'nthawi yayikulu'. Wosewera aliyense amalandiranso "nthawi yowonjezera yowonjezera" pakusuntha kulikonse. Kuwerengetsa nthawi yayikulu kumayamba pokhapokha nthawi yokhazikika itatha. Malingana ngati wosewerayo ayimitsa koloko yake "nthawi yoikika" isanathe, "nthawi yayikulu" siyisintha, mosasamala kanthu za kuchuluka kwa "nthawi yokhazikika" yogwiritsidwa ntchito.

    6.3 Mtsinje ukangogwa, zofunikira pa Article 6.2 ziyenera kutsimikiziridwa.

    6.4 Masewera asanayambe, zili kwa wotsutsa kusankha komwe nthawi yayikidwa.

    6.5 Wotchi yomwe wosewera wosewerayo ali ndi zidutswa zoyera iyenera kuyamba nthawi yomwe yatchulidwa kuti masewera ayambe.

    6.6 Wosewera aliyense yemwe angafike pa board pambuyo pa gawo adzayamba masewerawo. Chifukwa chake, nthawi yotsalira ndi mphindi zero. Malamulo ampikisano atha kunena zina.

    Ngati malamulo ampikisano amatchula nthawi yosakhalapo, zotsatirazi zikugwira ntchito:

    Ngati palibe m'modzi mwa osewera amene adafika nthawi yoyambira, wosewera yemwe ali ndi zidutswa zoyera ayenera kutaya nthawi yonse yomwe adadutsa asanafike, pokhapokha ngati malamulo ampikisano atanena kapena woweruzayo asankhe zina.

    6.7 Pamasewera, wosewera aliyense, atasunthira pa bolodi, ayenera kuyimitsa koloko yake ndikuyamba wotchi ya mnzake. Wosewera nthawi zonse ayenera kuloledwa kutsegula pini pa wotchi yake. Kusuntha kwanu sikukuwonedwa kukhala kokwanira kufikira mutachita, pokhapokha ngati kusunthaku kutha masewerawo (onani Nkhani 5.1.a, 5.2.a, 5.2.b, 5.2.c ndi 9.6).

    Nthawi pakati pa kusunthira pa bolodi ndi kuyimitsa wotchiyo, komanso kuyambitsa wotchi ya wotsutsana, imawonedwa ngati nthawi yomwe wosewera wapatsidwa.

    1. Wosewerayo ayenera kuyimitsa wotchi yake ndi dzanja lomwelo lomwe adasunthira. Kuyika dzanja lako pini yakulondera kapena kuyilozera pamwamba ndikoletsedwa.

    Osewera ayenera kusamalira nthawi ya chess molondola. Ndikoletsedwa kuigwiritsa ntchito mwamphamvu, kuigwira kapena kuiponya. Kugwiritsa ntchito wotchi mosayenera kudzalangidwa malinga ndi Article 13.4.

    1. Ngati wosewerayo sangathe kugwiritsa ntchito wotchiyo, ayenera kupereka wothandizira kuti achite ntchitoyi, mothandizidwa ndi wotsutsa. Wotchi yanu iyenera kukhazikitsidwa molondola ndi wotsutsa mosakondera.
      1. Muvi umawerengedwa kuti wagwa pomwe wofufuzira akuwona izi kapena m'modzi mwa osewera atavomera.
      2. Pokhapokha ngati chimodzi mwazinthu zomwe zili mu Zolemba 5.1.a, 5.1.b, 5.2.a, 5.2.b, 5.2.c zikugwira ntchito, wosewera yemwe wataya kuchuluka kwa nthawi yomwe achite ataya masewerawo. Komabe, masewerawa amakopedwa pomwe mwayi wofika pomwe wotsutsana sangathe kuyang'anitsitsa mfumu ya wotsutsayo kudzera pamilandu ingapo yovomerezeka.
      1. Pulogalamu ya. Chizindikiro chilichonse chomwe mawotchi amawona chimawerengedwa kuti ndi chokwanira pakalibe vuto lililonse. Wotchi iliyonse yomwe ili ndi chilema chowonekera iyenera kusinthidwa. Wotsogolera akuyenera kusintha nthawiyo ndikugwiritsa ntchito nzeru akakhazikitsa nthawi yomwe akuwonetseke ndi wotchi yomwe idzalowe m'malo mwa wolakwayo.

    INDE. Ngati pamasewera apezeka kuti kusintha kwa wotchi imodzi kapena zonse ziwiri sikunali kolondola, wosewera kapena wofufuzira ayenera kuyimitsa nthawi yomweyo. Wotsutsa ayenera kukonza nthawi yowomberayo ndi kauntala. Wotsutsa ayenera kugwiritsa ntchito chiweruzo chake kuti adziwe malamulo oyenera.

    6.8 Ngati mivi yonse iwiri igwa ndipo ndizosatheka kudziwa kuti ndi yani idagwa koyamba:

    1. masewera apitiliza ngati izi zichitika munthawi iliyonse yamasewera, kupatula nthawi yomaliza.
    1. masewerawa amakokedwa ngati zichitika munthawi yamasewera, pomwe zotsalira zonse ziyenera kumalizidwa.

    6.9 Ngati masewera akuyenera kuyimitsidwa, wotsutsa ayenera kuyimitsa nthawi.

    1. Wosewerayo amangoyimitsa nthawi kuti apemphe thandizo la wotsutsa, mwachitsanzo ngati kukwezedwa kumachitika ndipo chidutswa chofunikira sichipezeka.
    1. Wofufuza ayenera kusankha ngati seweroli liyambitsidwenso mulimonsemo.
    1. Wosewerayo akaimitsa nthawi kuti apemphe thandizo kwa wotsutsa, woweruzayo ayenera kudziwa ngati wosewerayo ali ndi chifukwa chomveka chochitira izi. Ngati zikuwonekeratu kuti panalibe chifukwa chomveka choyimitsira mawotchi, wosewerayo adzalangidwa malinga ndi nkhani 13.4

    6.10 Ngati vuto linalake lachitika ndipo / kapena zidutswazo zisinthidwe m'malo ena, wofufuzayo ayenera kugwiritsa ntchito chiweruzo chake kuti adziwe nthawi yomwe ilipo. Woyenerayo ayeneranso, ngati kuli koyenera, kusintha kuchuluka kwa kusunthira kumbuyo.

    6.11 M'chipinda chamasewera: zowonera, zoyang'anira kapena matabwa amaloledwa, zomwe zikuwonetsa komwe bolodi ili, mayendedwe ndi kuchuluka kwa mayendedwe opangidwa, ndi mawotchi omwe akuwonetsanso kuchuluka kwa mayendedwe. Komabe, wosewerayo sanganene chilichonse kutengera zidziwitso zomwe zawonetsedwa motere.

    7. Zoyipa

    7.1 Ngati pamasewera apezeka kuti pomwe zidutswazo sizinali zolondola, masewerawo amachotsedwa ndipo masewera atsopano adzaseweredwa.

    1. Ngati, pamasewera, zikuwoneka kuti komitiyi idayikidwa motsutsana ndi zomwe zili mu Article 2.1, masewerawa akupitilirabe, koma malo omwe adaseweredwa kale ayenera kusamutsidwa kupita ku bolodi loyikidwa bwino.

    7.2 Ngati masewera ayamba ndi mitundu yomwe yasinthidwa, iyenera kupitilizidwa pokhapokha ngati wotsutsa asankha mwanjira ina.

    Ngati wosewerayo asuntha chidutswa chimodzi kapena zingapo, ayenera kubwezeretsa malo oyenera munthawi yake. Ngati ndi kotheka, wosewera kapena wotsutsa amatha kuyimitsa nthawi ndikuyimbira woweruza. Wofufuza atha kulanga wosewera yemwe wasuntha zidutswazo.

    7.3 Ngati, pamasewera, apeza kuti kusuntha kosaloledwa kwachitika, kuphatikiza kulephera pamiyeso yakukweza kanyumba kapena kulanda mfumu ya mdani, udindo womwe udalipo kale kusakhazikika kuyenera kukhazikitsidwanso. Ngati malowa sangapangidwenso, seweroli liyenera kupitilirabe kuyambira pomwe panali kusakhazikika. Mawotchi ayenera kukhazikitsidwa molingana ndi Article 6.13. Zolemba 4.3 ndi 4.6 zimakhudza kusuntha komwe kumachitika m'malo mwa kusuntha kosavomerezeka. Kusewera kuyenera kupitilirabe pamalo obwezerezedwanso.

    Ngati atachita zomwe zafotokozedwa mu Article 7.4.a, pazoyimba ziwiri zoyambirira zomwe wosewera achita, woweruzayo ayenera kupatsa wotsutsayo mphindi ziwiri nthawi iliyonse; pakusuntha kachitatu kosavomerezeka ndi wosewera yemweyo, wotsutsa ayenera kunena kuti masewerawa atayika chifukwa cha wosewerayo.

    Komabe, masewerawa amakopedwa pomwe mwayi wofika pomwe wotsutsana sangayang'ane mfumu ya wotsutsayo kudzera pamilandu ingapo yovomerezeka.

    7.4 Ngati, pamasewera, zidutswazo zimapezeka kuti zasamuka mnyumba zawo, malowo nthawi yomwe isanakwane ayeneranso kubwezeretsedwanso. Ngati malo omwe adalipo kale mosakhazikika sangadziwike, sewerolo lipitilira kuchokera pamalo omaliza osadziwika kusanachitike. Mawotchi ayenera kukhazikitsidwa molingana ndi Article 6.13. Kusewera kuyenera kupitilirabe pamalo obwezerezedwanso.

    8. Kutanthauzira kwa zotsatsa

    8.1  Pamasewerawa, wosewera aliyense amafunika kuti alembe pa 'spreadsheet' yolembedwera mpikisano, mu algebraic notation (Onani Zakumapeto C), mayendedwe ake ndi omwe amatsutsana nawo, moyenera, amasuntha mayendedwe, m'njira zomveka bwino komanso zowerengeka momwe zingathere. Ndikoletsedwa kulemba msonkhanowu usanapange bolodi, pokhapokha ngati tayi ikunenedwa malinga ndi Zolemba 9.2, 9.3, kapena masewera atayimitsidwa malinga ndi Article 1.a. Malangizo Onyamuka Ochotsedwa.

    Wosewerayo atha kuyankha zomwe mdani asuntha asanalembe, ngati angafune.

    Muyenera kulemba zomwe mudapereka musanapange ina.

    Osewera onsewa ayenera kulowa nawo pa spreadsheet (Onani Zakumapeto C.13).

    Wosewerayo akulephera kulemba, wothandizira, yemwe atha kupatsidwa ndi wosewerayo ndikuvomerezedwa ndi wotsutsa, azisewera. Wotchi yake iyenera kukhazikitsidwa bwino ndi wotsutsa.

    8.2 Pa masewerawa, spreadsheet iyenera kuwonekera nthawi zonse kwa wotsutsa.

    8.3 Ma spreadsheet ndi katundu wa omwe akukonzekera zochitika.

    8.4 Ngati wosewerayo ali ndi mphindi zosakwana zisanu pa koloko yake nthawi iliyonse munthawi yamasewera ndipo salandila nthawi yowonjezera masekondi 30 kapena kupitilira pamenepo kusuntha, nthawi yonse yotsalayi sakakamizidwa kukwaniritsa zofunikira zamasewera Gawo 8.1. Nthawi yomweyo 'mivi' itagwa, wosewerayo akuyenera kusintha pepala lake asanasunthire chidutswa.

    8.5 Ngati palibe wosewera amene akufunika kuti awombere, malinga ndi Article 8.4, woweruza kapena wothandizira ayenera kuyesa kuchitira umboni ndikusunga mayendedwe. Poterepa, msangamsanga utagwa, wothamangitsa ayenera kuyimitsa nthawi. Kenako osewera onsewa ayenera kusintha mapepala awo, pogwiritsa ntchito wotsutsa kapena wotsutsa.

    1. Ngati wosewera m'modzi yekha ndi amene ayenera kujambula, malinga ndi zomwe zili mu Article 8.4, m'modzi mwa mivi ikangogwa, ayenera kusinthiratu pepala lake asanasunthire chidutswa. Malingana ngati nthawi yanu ndiyoti musunthe, wosewerayo atha kugwiritsa ntchito spreadsheet ya mdani wake, koma ayenera kuyibweza asadasamuke.
    2. Ngati spreadsheet yathunthu sichipezeka, osewera ayenera kukhazikitsanso masewerawo pa bolodi lina, moyang'aniridwa ndi wotsutsa kapena wothandizira. Asanayambitsenso masewerawo, wothamangitsayo adzalemba momwe machesi aliri, nthawi ndi kuchuluka kwa zomwe achita, ngati izi zingapezeke.
      1. Ngati ma spreadsheet achikale ndikuwonetsa kuti wosewera wapyola malire a nthawi, kusuntha kotsatira kuyenera kuwonedwa ngati koyambirira kanthawi kotsatira, pokhapokha ngati pali umboni kuti zochita zina zachitika.
      1. Masewera atatha, osewera onse akuyenera kusaina mapepala onse, kuwonetsa zotsatira zamasewera. Ngakhale sizolondola, zotsatirazi ziyimilira, pokhapokha ngati womenyerayo asankha zina.

    9. Masewera omangidwa

    9.1 Malamulo ampikisano atha kunena kuti osewera sangavomereze kuti amangirira zochepa zosunthira kapena mwanjira iliyonse, popanda chilolezo cha wotsutsa.

    9.2 Ngati malamulo ampikisano amalola kujambula mogwirizana, zotsatirazi zikugwira ntchito:

    1. Wosewera yemwe akufuna kuponyera amayenera kuchita izi atatha kuyendetsa gululo, asanayimitse nthawi ndikuyamba wotchiyo. Chopereka nthawi ina iliyonse pamasewera chimakhala chovomerezeka, koma Article 12.6 iyenera kuwonedwa. Zinthu sizingaphatikizidwe pamalingaliro. Pazochitika zonsezi, zoperekazo sizingachotsedwe ndikukhalabe koyenera mpaka pomwe wotsutsayo avomereze, akukana pakamwa, akukana pokhudza chidutswa ndi cholinga chosunthira kapena kuchigwira, kapena ngati masewera atha mwanjira ina.
    1. Chotsatiracho chiyenera kuzindikiridwa ndi osewera onse pamasamba awo omwe ali ndi chizindikiro (Onani Zakumapeto C13).
    1. Pempho lokoka malinga ndi Zolemba 9.2, 9.3 kapena 10.2 liziwerengedwa ngati zopereka.

    9.2 Masewerawa amakokedwa, atadandaula molondola kuchokera kwa wosewera yemwe ali ndi nthawi yoti achite, akakhala pamalo omwewo, katatu (osatinso kubwereza mayendedwe)

    1. yatsala pang'ono kuwoneka, ngati mungayambe kulemba kusuntha kwanu ndikulengeza kwa wotsutsa cholinga chanu choti musamuke, kapena
    1. wangowonekera ndipo wosewera yemwe akuti tayiyo ali ndi mwayi wosewera.

    Maudindo molingana ndi (a) ndi (b) amawerengedwa ofanana, ngati wosewera yemweyo ali ndi kutembenuka, zidutswa zamtundu womwewo ndi utoto zimakhala m'mabwalo omwewo, ndipo kuthekera kwa mayendedwe a zidutswa zonse za osewera awiriwa ndi momwemonso.

    Malowa sali ofanana ngati kanyumba kamene kakhoza kutengedwa 'en passant' sikathenso kugwidwa motere. Mfumu (kapena rook) ikakakamizidwa kuti isunthire, imataya ufulu wake woponya, ngati alipo, pokhapokha atasunthidwa.

    9.3. Masewerawo amangika, chifukwa chodandaula choyenera cha wosewera yemwe ali ndi nthawi yoti achite, ngati:

    1. akulemba kusuntha kwake patsamba lake ndikulengeza kwa wotsutsa kuti akufuna kuchita zomwe zachitika, zomwe zithandizira kuti wosewera aliyense asasunthike popanda chochita chilichonse, kapena
    1. Zotsatira zomaliza 50 motsatizana zidapangidwa ndi osewera onse, osayenda kapena kuwombera.
      1. Wosewerayo akakhudza chidutswa molingana ndi Article 4.3 osatinso tayi, amataya ufulu wofunsa, malinga ndi Nkhani 9.2 ndi 9.3, panthawiyi.
      1. Wosewerayo akafuna tayi, malinga ndi Nkhani 9.2 ndi 9.3, amatha kuyimitsa mawotchi onse awiri. (Onani Article 6.12.b) Simungathe kuchotsa pempholi
    1. Ngati pempholo latsimikiziridwa kuti ndi lolondola, masewerawa amakopedwa nthawi yomweyo
    1. Ngati zonena zake zatsimikiziridwa kuti sizolondola, wofufuzayo ayenera kuwonjezera mphindi zitatu nthawi yotsalira yotsutsa ya wotsutsana. Kenako masewerawa apitilize. Ngati pempholi lipangidwa potengera zomwe anakonza, izi ziyenera kuperekedwa malinga ndi zomwe zili mu Article 4.

    9.4 Masewerawo amajambulidwa pomwe anthu afika pomwe kuwunika sikungachitike chifukwa cha zomwe zachitika mwalamulo. Izi zimamaliza masewerawa bola ngati kusuntha komwe kumapangitsa malowa kukhala kovomerezeka.

    10. Kuthamangira kumapeto

    10.1 'Kutha kwothamanga' ndiye gawo lamasewera pomwe zonse (zotsalira) zimayenera kupita mkati mwa nthawi inayake.

    10.2 Ngati wosewerayo, yemwe ali ndi mwayi woti azisewera, atsala ndi mphindi zosakwana ziwiri pa koloko yake, atha kufunsa tayi msana wake usanagwe. Ayenera kuyimbira referee ndipo akhoza kuyimitsa nthawi (Onani Article 6.12.b).

    1. Ngati wofufuzayo avomereza kuti wotsutsayo sakuyesera kuti apambane masewerawo, mwa njira yabwinobwino, kapena kuti wotsutsayo sangapambane mwa njira yabwinobwino, ndiye kuti ayenera kulengeza tie. Kupanda kutero, muyenera kuimitsa chisankho chanu kapena kukana madandaulowo. Woweruzayo asintha chigamulo chake, wotsutsayo akhoza kuloledwa mphindi ziwiri zowonjezera ndipo kusewera kuyenera kupitilirabe ngati kuli kotheka kwa wotsutsa. Wofufuza ayenera kulengeza zotsatira zomaliza kumapeto kwa masewerawo kapena msanga utafika. Muyenera kulengeza tayi ngati mukuvomereza kuti malo omaliza sangapambane ndi njira wamba, kapena kuti wotsutsayo sanayesetse zokwanira kuti apambane masewerawa mwanjira zachilendo.
    1. Woweruzayo akana pempholi, wotsutsayo ayenera kukhala ndi mphindi ziwiri zowonjezera.
    1. Lingaliro la oweluza milandu likhala lomaliza (popanda pempho) kwa (a), (b), (c).

    11. Zolemba

    11. Pokhapokha atalengezedwa kale, ngati sichoncho, wosewera yemwe apambana masewera awo, kapena opambana ndi WO, alandila (1), wosewera yemwe wataya masewera awo kapena kutaya ndi WO amalandira (0) pt ndi wosewera yemwe mangani masewera anu amalandila theka la mfundo (½).

    12. Khalidwe la osewera.

    12. 1 Osewera sangathe kuchita chilichonse chomwe chimayambitsa mbiri yoyipa pamasewera a chess.

    1. 2 Osewera sangachoke m'malo "osewerera" popanda chilolezo cha wotsutsa. Malo amasewera amakhala ndi chipinda chamasewera, zipinda zodyeramo, malo ocheperako chakudya, malo osungidwira osuta ndi malo ena osankhidwa ndi wotsutsa. Wosewerayo, yemwe ali ndi nthawi yoti azisewera, sangatuluke mnyumbayo popanda chilolezo cha wotsutsa.

    12.2 Pamasewerawa, osewera saloledwa kugwiritsa ntchito zolemba, magwero azidziwitso kapena upangiri, kapena kupenda pagulu lina.

    1. Popanda chilolezo cha woweruzayo, wosewerayo saloledwa kunyamula foni kapena njira zina zamagetsi zolumikizirana mchipinda chosewerera, pokhapokha atadulidwa. Ngati zina mwazinthuzi zimapanga phokoso, wosewerayo ayenera kutaya masewerawo. Wotsutsayo ayenera kupambana. Komabe, ngati wotsutsayo sangathe kupambana pamasewera angapo mwalamulo, zigoli zake ziyenera kuwonedwa ngati tayi.
    1. Kusuta kumaloledwa m'deralo malinga ndi wotsutsa.
      1. Spreadsheet iyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito polemba ma bids, nthawi za wotchi, kuyitanitsa tayi, zolemba zokhudzana ndi madandaulo, ndi zina zofunika.
      1. Osewera omwe amaliza masewera awo akuyenera kuwonedwa ngati owonera.
      1. Ndizoletsedwa kusokoneza kapena kusokoneza mdani m'njira iliyonse. Izi zikuphatikiza madandaulo osaneneka, zopereka za sweepstake zomwe sizingafanane ndi zina, kapena kuwonetsa phokoso pagululo.
      1. Kuphwanya gawo lililonse la zolemba 12.1 mpaka 12.6 kudzapangitsa kuti zilango zomwe zaperekedwa m'ndime 13.4 zitheke.

    12.3 Kukana kosalekeza kwa osewera kutsatira Malamulo a Chess kuyenera kulangidwa potaya masewerawo. Wofufuza ayenera kusankha ziwonetsero za wotsutsana.

      1. Ngati osewera onsewa apezeka olakwa pamutu wa Article 12.8, masewerawa adzalengezedwa kuti atayika onse awiri.
      1. Pankhani ya zaluso. Alireza kapena Zakumapeto D, wosewerayo sangachite apilo chigamulo cha wotsutsa.

    Mulimonse momwe zingakhalire, wosewera amatha kupikisana ndi lingaliro lililonse la wotsutsa, pokhapokha malamulo ampikisano atanena zina.

    13. Udindo wa wotsutsa

    13.1 Woweruza akuyenera kutsimikizira kuti Malamulo a Chess amatsatiridwa.

      1. Wofufuza ayenera kuchita zokomera mpikisano. Muyenera kuwonetsetsa kuti pali malo abwino osewerera, kuti osewera asasokonezeke. Muyeneranso kuwunika momwe mpikisano ukuyendera.
      1. Wofufuza akuyenera kuyang'anira machesi, makamaka ngati osewera akufika pa nthawi yake, azitsatira zomwe wapanga, ndikupereka zilango kwa osewera ngati kuli koyenera.

    13.2 Wofufuza atha kupereka zilango izi kapena zingapo:

    1. chenjezo,
    2. onjezani nthawi yotsala ya wotsutsana,
    3. kuchepetsa nthawi yotsala ya wosewera wolakwayo,
    4. kulengeza masewera atayika,
    5. kuchepetsa mfundo zomwe apeza pamasewera ndi wosewera wolakwayo,
    6. onjezerani mfundo zomwe mumapeza pamasewera ndi wotsutsa mpaka pazotheka pamasewerawo,
    7. Kuthamangitsidwa ku mwambowu
      1. Wofufuza atha kupatsanso wosewera m'modzi kapena onse awiri nthawi yakusokonekera kunja kwa masewerawo.
      1. Wofufuza sayenera kulowererapo pamasewera, kupatula milandu yomwe yaperekedwa m'malamulo a

    Chess. Sichiyenera kuwonetsa kuchuluka kwa mayendedwe omwe adachitika, pokhapokha mutagwiritsa ntchito zomwe zili mu Article 8.5, pomwe m'modzi mwa mivi idagwa. Wofufuza ayenera kupewa kudziwitsa wosewerayo kuti womutsutsayo wasuntha kapena kuti wosewerayo sanayambe nthawi yake.

      1. Pulogalamu ya. Owonerera ndi osewera masewera ena sayenera kuyankhula kapena kusokoneza masewera mwanjira iliyonse. Ngati kuli kotheka, wothamangayo atha kuthamangitsa olakwira m'malo osewerera. Wina akaona kuti pali zosayenerera, amangomuuza woweruzayo.

    INDE. Pokhapokha ngati wololezedwa wavomerezedwa, ndizoletsedwa kuti aliyense agwiritse ntchito foni yam'manja kapena chida chilichonse cholumikizirana pamalowa komanso mdera lina lililonse loyimbidwa ndi wotsutsa.

    Mmera

    14.1 Mabungwe ogwirizana atha kupempha FIDE kuti ipereke chigamulo chovomerezeka pazokhudza zokhudzana ndi Malamulo a Chess.

    Zowonjezera

    A. Chess yachangu

    A1 Masewera a 'Quick Chess' ndi amodzi omwe mayendedwe onse akuyenera kuchitidwa moyikiratu mphindi 15, koma ochepera mphindi 60 wosewera aliyense; kapena nthawi yayikulu + nthawi 60 kukweza kulikonse kuli mphindi 15, koma ochepera mphindi 60 wosewera aliyense.

    A2 Osewera sakukakamizidwa kuti ajambule mayendedwe amasewera.

    A3 Pakayang'aniridwa bwino pamasewera (mwachitsanzo, wotsutsa m'modzi pamasewera atatu) Malamulo Mpikisano amagwiranso ntchito.

    A4 Ngati kuyang'anira sikokwanira, Malamulo Mpikisano amagwiranso ntchito, pokhapokha ngati azilamulidwa ndi Malamulo a Rapid Chess:

    1. Wosewera aliyense akangoyenda katatu, palibe chodandaula chomwe chingaperekedwe ponena za kukhazikitsidwa kwa zidutswazo molakwika, kapangidwe ka bolodi, kapena nthawi. Pankhani ya kusintha kwa udindo pakati pa mfumu ndi mfumukazi, sikuloledwa kuponya limodzi ndi mfumu iyi.
    1. Wofufuza ayenera kulowererapo malinga ndi zomwe Art. 4 (Act of moving the pieces), pokhapokha ngati m'modzi kapena onse osewera akufuna.
    1. Kusunthika kosaloledwa kumamalizidwa nthawi yomwe wotsutsana akuyamba. Wotsutsayo ali ndi ufulu wonena kuti wosewerayo wamaliza kusuntha kosavomerezeka, bola ngati sanasunthe. Pokhapokha dandauloli litatha mpeweruyo alowererapo. Komabe, ngati mafumu onsewa akuyang'aniridwa kapena kupititsa patsogolo kwa katswili sikunamalizidwe, woweruzayo akuyenera kuchitapo kanthu, ngati zingatheke.
    1. 1. Muvi umaganiziridwa kuti wagwa m'modzi mwa osewera atapanga chidziwitso chovomerezeka. Wofufuza ayenera kupewa kuloza muvi, koma atha kulowererapo ngati mivi yonse iwiri yagwa.

    A5 Kuti apambane nthawi, wofunsayo ayimitse mawotchi onsewa ndikudziwitsa wotsutsa.

    Kuti chidziwitso chikhale chopambana, mawotchi atayimitsidwa, muvi wa wopemphayo uyenera kukhala 'wokwera' ndi muvi wa womutsutsayo pambuyo poti mawotchi ayimitsidwa.

    A6 Ngati mivi yonse itatulutsidwa monga tafotokozera mu (1) ndi (2), wotsutsa ayenera kunena kuti masewerawa ndi chimango.

    Kuwala kwa mphezi

    B1 Masewera a 'mphezi' ndi amodzi omwe mayendedwe onse amayenera kuchitidwa moyikiratu nthawi yochepera mphindi 15 wosewera aliyense; kapena nthawi yayikulu + nthawi 60 kukweza kulikonse sikuchepera mphindi 15.

    B2 Pakayang'aniridwa mokwanira pamasewera (wofufuzira m'modzi pamasewera aliwonse), Malamulo Mpikisano ndi zomwe Article A2 imagwira.

    B3 Ngati kuyang'anira sikokwanira, zotsatirazi ziyenera kutsatira.

    1. Masewera adzayang'aniridwa ndi Malamulo a Rapid Chess monga aperekedwa mu Zowonjezera A, pokhapokha atayang'aniridwa ndi Malamulo a Mphezi otsatirawa.
    1. Zolemba 10.2 ndi A4c sizikugwira ntchito.
    2. Kusuntha kosaloledwa kumamalizidwa nthawi ya mdani ikangoyamba. Asananyamuke, wotsutsayo ali ndi ufulu wopempha kuti apambane. Komabe, wosewerayo ali ndi ufulu wofunsa zojambula asanasunthe yekha, ngati wotsutsayo sangathe kuwongolera chifukwa cha zovuta zingapo zalamulo. Wotsutsayo akamaliza kusuntha, kusuntha kosaloledwa sikungakonzedwe pokhapokha pakhala mgwirizano wamba popanda woweruza.

    Kufotokozera kwa dongosolo la algebraic

    C1 Pofotokozera izi, "chidutswa" chimatanthawuza chidutswa chilichonse, kupatula pakhosi.

    C2 Chidutswa chilichonse chimatchulidwa ndi chilembo choyamba cha dzina lake. Chitsanzo: R = mfumu, D = mfumukazi, T = rook, B = bishopu, C = knight. (Pankhani ya kavalo, kuti musavutike, gwiritsani ntchito N.)

    C3 Kalata yoyamba yamadzinawo, wosewerayo ndi womasuka kugwiritsa ntchito dzina loyambirira la dzinalo momwe limagwiritsidwira ntchito mdziko lake. Chitsanzo: F = fou (French for bishop), L = loper (Dutch for bishop). M'magazini osindikizidwa, kugwiritsa ntchito zovala kumalimbikitsidwa.

    Mabwana C4 Sakusonyezedwa ndi kalata yawo yoyamba, koma amadziwika poti palibe. Chitsanzo: e5, d4, a5.

    C5 Mizati eyiti (kuyambira kumanzere kupita kumanja yoyera ndi kumanja kumanzere yakuda) imawonetsedwa ndi zilembo zazing'ono, a, b, c, d, e, f, g, ndi h, motsatana.

    C6 Mizere isanu ndi itatu (kuyambira pansi mpaka pamwamba yoyera yoyera komanso kuyambira pamwamba mpaka pansi wosewera wakuda) yawerengedwa 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, ndi 8, motsatana. Chifukwa chake, poyambira, zidutswa zoyera zimayikidwa m'mizere yoyamba ndi yachiwiri; Zidutswa zakuda zimayikidwa m'mizere eyiti ndi yachisanu ndi chiwiri.

    C7 Zotsatira za malamulowa, mabokosi onse 64 amawonetsedwa mosakanikirana ndi chilembo chimodzi ndi nambala

    C8 Kusuntha kulikonse kwa chidutswa kumawonetsedwa ndi a) chilembo choyamba cha dzina la chidutswacho ndi b) malo ofikira. Palibe mzere pakati pa a) ndi b).

    Zitsanzo: Be5, Nf3, Rd1.

    Pankhani ya oyenda pansi, malo okhawo amafikira ndi omwe amawonetsedwa. Zitsanzo: e5, d4, a5.

    C9 Chidutswa chikatengedwa, x imayikidwa pakati (a) chilembo choyamba ndi dzina la chidutswacho ndi b) malo ofikira. Zitsanzo: Bxe5, Nxf3, Rxd1. Panyolo akapanga chithunzi, gawo loyambira liyenera kuwonetsedwa, kenako x, pamapeto pake bwalo lofikira. Zitsanzo: dxe5, gxf3, axb5. Pankhani yolanda 'en passant', malowo amaperekedwa, kuwonetsa komwe pakhosi pamapeto pake adafika ndipo zilembo 'ep' zimawonjezedwa pamakalatawo. Chitsanzo: exd6 ep

    C10 Ngati matailosi awiri ofanana atha kupita kubwalo limodzi, matailosi omwe amasuntha amawonetsedwa motere:

    1. Ngati zidutswazo zili pamzere wofanana: ndi a) chilembo choyamba cha dzina la chidutswacho, b) gawo la komwe achokerako, ndi c) malo ofikira.
    1. Ngati zidutswazo zili mgulu limodzi: ndi a) kalata yoyamba ya dzina la chidutswacho, b) mzere wakomwe achokerako, ndi c) malo obwerera

    Ngati zidutswazo zili m'mizere ndi mizere yosiyana, njira 1) ndiyabwino. Pankhani yogwira, 'x' ikhoza kuwonjezedwa pakati pa b) ndi c).

    Zitsanzo:

    • Pali ma knights awiri, m'mabwalo g1 ndi e1, ndipo imodzi mwayo imasunthira pa square f3: Ngf3 kapena Nef3, momwe zingakhalire.
    • Pali ma knights awiri, pa malo a g5 ndi g1, ndipo imodzi mwayo imasunthira pa f3 lalikulu: C5f3 kapena C1f3, momwe zingakhalire.
    • Pali ma knights awiri, mnyumba h2 ndi d4, ndipo m'modzi mwa iwo amasamukira kunyumba f3: Nf3 kapena Ndf3, momwe zingakhalire.
    • Ngati kugwira kumachitika mu f3, zitsanzo izi zasinthidwa powonjezera 'x':

    1) Ngati ziphuphu ziwiri zitha kutenga chidutswa chofanana ndi chomwe mdaniyo, chikwangwani chomwe chidasunthidwa chikuwonetsedwa ndi a) kalata yoyambirira, b) 'x', c) malo omaliza. Chitsanzo: ngati pali zikwangwani zoyera pabwalo c4 ndi e4 ndi chidutswa chakuda pa d5, chidziwitso chakuyenda kwa White ndi cxd5 kapena exd5, koyenera.

    Pankhani yopititsa patsogolo pawn, kusuntha kwa pawn kumawonetsedwa, kutsatiridwa nthawi yomweyo ndi kalata yoyamba ya chidutswa chatsopanocho. Zitsanzo: d8D, f8C, b1B, g1T.

    Chopatsacho chiyenera kulembedwa kuti (=)

    Chidule:

    0-0 = nkhungu yokhala ndi nsanja h1 kapena nsanja h8 (thanthwe laling'ono)

    0-0-0 = nkhungu yokhala ndi nsanja a1 kapena nsanja a8

    (thanthwe lalikulu) x = zojambula

    + = cheke ++ kapena # = kuyang'ana

    ep = kugwira "kudutsa"

    Sikukakamizidwa kulemba cheke, kuwunika ndi kujambula pa spreadsheet.

    Kufulumizitsa komaliza komaliza wopanda woyimilira pomwe pamasewera

    Nthawi yomwe machesi amayendetsedwa molingana ndi Article 10, wosewerayo atha kufunsa kukoka akakhala ndi mphindi zosakwana ziwiri koloko yake ndipo muvi wake usanagwe. Izi zitha masewera. Mutha kuyitanitsa kutengera:

    1. kuti mdani wanu sangathe kupambana mwanjira zachilendo, ndi / kapena
    2. kuti mdani wanu sakuyesera kupambana mwanjira zachilendo.

    Poganizira (a), wosewerayo ayenera kujambula malo omaliza ndipo womutsutsa amafufuza.

    Mu hypothesis (b), wosewerayo ayenera kujambula malo omaliza mu spreadsheet yosinthidwa.

    Wotsutsayo ayenera kutsimikizira malo omaliza komanso tsamba la ntchito.

    Madandaulowo akuyenera kupita kwa wozenga mlandu, yemwe chigamulo chake chidzakhala chomaliza.

    Malamulo amasewera ndi anthu akhungu komanso owonera pang'ono.

    Oyang'anira masewera a E1 ayenera kukhala ndi mphamvu yosintha malamulowa pansipa malinga ndi momwe zinthu ziliri.

    M'masewera ampikisano pakati pa osewera omwe akuwona ndi osawona (osawona bwino), wosewera aliyense angafunike kugwiritsa ntchito matabwa awiri, osewera omwe ali ndi bolodi yabwinobwino komanso wosewera osawona omwe ali ndi bolodi lapadera. Sitimayo yomangidwa mwapadera iyenera kukwaniritsa izi:

    1. osachepera miyeso 20 x 20 cm;
    2. nyumba zakuda zatsitsidwa pang'ono;
    3. kabowo m'nyumba iliyonse;
    4. Chidutswa chilichonse chimayenera kukhala ndi chikhomo chokwanira bwino muboola nyumba;
    5. Zidutswa za "Staunton", zidutswa zakuda zimadziwika makamaka.

    E2 Malamulo otsatirawa akuyenera kuwongolera masewerawa:

    1. Zopereka ziyenera kulengezedwa momveka bwino, mobwerezabwereza ndi wotsutsa ndikuphedwa pa board yake. Potsatsa pawn, wosewerayo ayenera kulengeza chidutswa chomwe wasankha. Kuti alengeze momveka bwino momwe angathere, akuti tikugwiritsa ntchito

    Mayina otsatirawa m'malo mwa zilembo zofanana za algebraic

    A-Anna

    B-Bella

    C-Kaisara

    D-David

    E-Eva

    F Felix

    G-Gustav

    H-Hector

    Mizere yoyera mpaka yakuda iyenera kukhala ndi manambala m'Chijeremani:

    1 amakonda

    2-awiri (dois)

    3-drei (atatu)

    4-kudya (anayi)

    5-fuenf (zisanu)

    6-sechs (zisanu ndi chimodzi)

    7-seveni (sete)

    Acht 8 (eyiti)

    Osewera alengezedwa "Lange Rochade"(Grande Roque m'Chijeremani) ndi" Kurze Rochade "(Small castling mu Chijeremani).

    Zidutswazi zimagwiritsa ntchito mayina achijeremani:

    "Koenig ”(King)," Dame "(Mfumukazi)," Turm "(Rook)," Laeufer "(Bishop)," Springer "(Hatchi) ndi" Bauer "(Pawn).

    1. Pa bolodi la osewera osawona bwino, chidutswacho chimawerengedwa kuti chidakhudzidwa chikachotsedwa pa dzenje lokonzekera.
    1. Chopereka chimawerengedwa kuti chidzachitidwa pamene:
    1. ngati atagwidwa, ngati chidutswa chomwe chatengedwa chachotsedwa pagulu la wosewerayo yemwe akuyenera kusewera;
    2. gawo linaikidwa mu dzenje losanjikiza losiyana;
    1. Mwayi walengezedwa.

    Pomwepo ndi pomwe nthawi ya wotsutsana ingayambike.

    Akangolemba ma 2 ndi 3 pamwambapa, malamulo abwinobwino amagwiranso ntchito kwa woombeza.

    4. Kugwiritsa ntchito wotchi yopangidwa mwapadera ya wosewera osawona ndikololedwa. Wotchiyo iyeneranso kukhala ndi izi:

    1. kujambula kosinthidwa ndi manja olimbitsa, mphindi 15 zilizonse ndikulemba kadontho ndipo mphindi XNUMX zilizonse ndi madontho awiri;
    2. Muvi womwe ungamveke mosavuta mukakhudza. Chisamaliro chapadera chiyenera kuchitidwa kuti zitsimikizire kuti mivi ikukonzedwa bwino kuti wosewerayo amve manja kwa mphindi zisanu zomaliza za ola lathunthu.
    1. Wosewerayo yemwe ali ndi vuto lowonera ayenera kujambula masewerawa mu Braille, kapena kulemba mayendedwewo ndi dzanja, kapena kujambula pa tepi yamaginito.
    1. Zolakwitsa zilizonse pakulengeza zakusuntha ziyenera kukonzedwa nthawi yomweyo wotchi ya mdaniyo isanayambe.
    1. Ngati pakadali masewerawa maudindo osiyanasiyana amapezeka pama board awiriwo, akuyenera kukonzedwa mothandizidwa ndi wotsutsa komanso kufunsa masamba a osewera awiriwo. Ngati mapepala awiriwa akufanana, wosewera yemwe adalemba kusunthika molondola, koma adachita molakwika, ayenera kukonza malo awo kuti agwirizane ndi kusuntha komwe kukuwonetsedwa pamasamba.
    1. Pakakhala kusiyana m'masamba awiriwa, malowo akuyenera kukhazikitsidwanso mpaka pomwe mapepala awiriwa agwirizane ndipo woweruzayo adzakhazikitsanso nthawi ngati kuli kofunikira.
    1. Wosewerayo ali ndi ufulu kugwiritsa ntchito wothandizira yemwe angachite izi kapena izi:
    1. Pangani kusuntha kwa wosewera aliyense pa bolodi la mdani;
    2. Lengezani mayendedwe a osewera onse;
    3. Lembani mayendedwe ake pa tsamba la wosewera osawona ndikuyamba wotchi ya mdani (poganizira lamulo 3.c);
    4. dziwitsani wosewera yemwe ali ndi vuto losawona, pokhapokha atamupempha, kuchuluka kwa mayendedwe omwe achita komanso nthawi yomwe osewera onsewa agwiritsa ntchito;
    5. kudzinenera kuti apambana ngati nthawi ya wotsutsayo yagwa ndikudziwitsa wotsutsa pamene wosewerayo wagwira chimodzi mwa zidutswa zake.
    6. Chitani njira zofunikira pakuyimitsidwa.

    10. Ngati wosewera wakhungu sakugwiritsa ntchito womuthandizira, wosewerayo atha kufunsa wina kuti akhale ndi udindo wokwaniritsa zomwe zatchulidwa mu mfundo 9.a ndi 9.b.

    Chess amalamulira 960

    F1  Masewera asanakwane a Chess960, malo oyambira amayikidwa mwangozi, malinga ndi malamulo ena. Pambuyo pake, masewerawa amaseweredwa chimodzimodzi ndi chess wakale. Makamaka, zidutswa ndi ziphuphu zimakhala ndimayendedwe awo, ndipo cholinga cha wosewera aliyense ndikuyang'ana mfumu ya mdani wake.

    Zofunikira poyambira

    Malo oyambira Chess960 ayenera kutsatira malamulo ena. Zoyala zoyera ziyenera kuikidwa pamzere wachiwiri monga chess wabwinobwino. Zovala zonse zoyera zotsalira zimayikidwa pamzere woyamba, koma ndi zoletsa izi:

    1. Mfumu imayikidwa penapake pakati pa nsanja ziwirizo, ndipo
    2. Mabishopu amaikidwa m'nyumba za mitundu yosiyana, ndipo
    3. Zidutswa zakuda zimayikidwa ndendende moyang'anizana ndi zidutswa zoyera.

    Udindo woyamba ungapangidwe asananyamuke, mwina pulogalamu yamakompyuta kapena kugwiritsa ntchito deta, ndalama kapena makadi, ndi zina zambiri.

    Malamulo a Chess960 castling

    1. Chess960 imalola wosewera aliyense kuponya kamodzi pamasewera, olowa nawo mfumu ndikusunthira limodzi. Komabe, kutanthauzira kwina kwamasewera achikale a chess ndikofunikira pakuwombera, chifukwa malamulo achikhalidwe amaganiza zoyamba mafumu ndi ma rook omwe nthawi zambiri sagwira ntchito pa 960 chess.
    1. Momwe mungayambitsire

    Ku Chess960, kutengera udindo wa mfumu ndi kukhazikika asanafike castling, castling imagwiritsidwa ntchito imodzi mwanjira zinayi izi:

    1. Kusuntha kawiri: kusuntha ndi mfumu ndikutsatira kusuntha.
    2. Kuponya mwa kusintha: kusinthana udindo wa mfumu ndi uja wa rook.
    3. Kuponyera ndi mfumu imodzi kusuntha: Sinthani mfumu imodzi yokha.
    4. Ponyani nsanja imodzi yokha: Sinthani nsanja imodzi yokha.

    Malangizo:

    1. Mukaponyedwa pa bolodi lenileni limodzi ndi munthu wotsutsana naye, zimalimbikitsidwa kuti mfumuyi ichoke pamalopo pafupi ndi malo ake omaliza, rook idzachoka pomwe idayamba mpaka pomwe izikhala komaliza, ndipo pamapeto pake mfumuyo iyikidwa. Kwanu kopita.
    2. Pambuyo pakuponya, malo omaliza a rook ndi mfumu azikhala ofanana ndendende ndi chess wakale.

    Kumveketsa

    Chifukwa chake castling yayikulu (yotchedwa 0-0-0 komanso yotchedwa Queen-side castling mu orthodox chess, mfumu ili mnyumba c (c1 yoyera ndi c8 yakuda) ndipo rook ndi mnyumba d (d1 zoyera ndi d8 zakuda) Pambuyo pakuponya pagawo g

    (wodziwika kuti 0-0 ndipo amadziwika kuti king-side castling mu orthodox chess), mfumuyi ili pa g square (g1 yoyera ndi g8 yakuda) ndipo rook idzakhala pa f square (f1 yoyera ndi f8 wakuda).

    Mfundo:

    1. Kuti mupewe kulakwitsa kulikonse, ndibwino kunena kuti "ndiyambitsa" musanapereke mwayiwu.

    2. M'malo ena oyambira, mfumu kapena rook (koma osati onse awiri) sasuntha nthawi yoponya.

    3, m'malo ena oyambira, castling imatha kuchitika asanakwane ngati koyamba.

    1. Mabwalo onse pakati pamabwalo oyambira ndi omalizira amfumu (kuphatikiza malo omaliza), ndi mabwalo onse pakati pa malo oyambira mpaka kumapeto a rook (kuphatikiza malo omaliza), ayenera kukhala opanda munthu, kupatula mafumu ndi malo obwerera .
    1. M'malo ena oyambira, mabwalo ena, omwe amayenera kuti analibe anthu mu chess yachikhalidwe, amatha kukhala nawo nthawi yoponya. Mwachitsanzo, pambuyo pa castling yayikulu, ndizotheka, nyumba a, boe akukhalabe, ndipo pambuyo pachitetezo chaching'ono ndizotheka kuti nyumba ndi / oh azikhalamo.

    Malangizo ngati machesi akuyenera kuimitsidwa

    1. Ngati masewera samatha kumapeto kwa nthawi yoikidwiratu ya masewerawo, wofufuzayo ayenera kudziwa kuti wosewerayo ali ndi nthawi yosewerera, "asindikize" gawo lotsatira. Wosewerayo ayenera kulemba kusuntha kwake pamasamba osadziwika bwino, kuyika tsamba lake ndi tsamba lomutsutsa mu emvulopu, kusindikiza ndipo pokhapokha atayimitsa nthawi, osayamba wotchiyo.

    Malingana ngati wotchi siimatha, wosewerayo ali ndi ufulu wosintha kayendedwe kake kachinsinsi. Ngati, atadziwitsidwa ndi wotsutsa kuti chotsatira chomwe chikhale chinsinsi, wosewerayo asunthira pa bolodi, ayenera kuzilemba pa spreadsheet ngati chinsinsi chake.

    INDE. Wofufuza adzawona kuti wosewera yemwe ali ndi nthawi yoti azisewera, yemwe akufuna kuyimitsa masewera asanakwane gawoli, wagwiritsa ntchito nthawi yonse yotsalayo kumaliza gawoli.

    2. Envelopu iyenera kuwonetsa:

    1. mayina a osewera;
    2. malowo nthawi yomweyi isanachitike, ndipo
    3. nthawi yogwiritsidwa ntchito ndi osewera, ndi
    4. dzina la wosewera yemwe wapanga chinsinsi, ndipo
    5. nambala yopereka mwachinsinsi ndi
    6. kupereka tayi, ngati pempholo lidapangidwa masewerawa asanayimitsidwe, ndipo
    7. tsiku, nthawi ndi malo oyambiranso masewerawo.

    3. Woweluza akuyenera kuwonetsetsa kuti zomwe zili mu emvulopu ndizolondola ndipo akuyang'anira.

    4.Wosewerayo akafunsira tayi pambuyo poti mdaniyo achita chinsinsi, pempholo limakhalabe logwira ntchito mpaka wosewerayo avomereze kapena akukana, malinga ndi Article 9.1.

    5Masewerawa asanayambirenso, malowo asanasunthire mwachinsinsi ayenera kuyikidwa pa bolodi ndipo, kuphatikiza apo, nthawi yomwe osewera adasewera poyimitsidwa iyenera kuwonetsedwa nthawi.

    6.Ngati masewera asanayambirenso, osewera akusewera mogwirizana, kapena m'modzi mwa osewera amadziwitsa wotsutsa kuti akuchoka, masewera atha. Envelopu iyenera kutsegulidwa pokhapokha wosewera yemwe akuyenera kuyankha kusuntha kwachinsinsi alipo.

    Pokhapokha pamilandu yotchulidwa m'ndime 5, 6.9 ndi 9.6, masewerawa amatayika kwa wosewera yemwe mbiri yake yachinsinsi imayenda

    1. ndizovuta kapena
    2. ndi zabodza, kotero kuti tanthauzo lake lenileni ndi losatheka kukhazikitsa, kapena
    3. Ndizoletsedwa.

    Ngati mukuyambiranso masewerawa

    1. wosewera kuti ayankhe kusuntha kwachinsinsi kulipo, envelopu imatsegulidwa, kusuntha kwachinsinsi kumapangidwa pa bolodi ndikuyika wotchi yake.
    2. wosewera yemwe amayankha poyenda mwachinsinsi kulibe, wotchi yake iyenera kuyatsidwa. Atafika, wosewerayo amatha kuyimitsa wotchi yake ndikuyimbira woweruza. Envelopu imatsegulidwa ndipo kusuntha kwachinsinsi kumachitika pa bolodi. Wotchi yanu imayamba.
    3. Wosewera yemwe wasuntha mwachinsinsi kulibe, womutsutsa ali ndi ufulu woyankha patsamba lake, kusindikiza pepala lake mu envelopu yatsopano, kuyimitsa koloko yake ndikuyamba wotsutsana naye, m'malo moyankha mwanjira yachilendo . Poterepa, envelopu yatsopano iyenera kusungidwa m'manja mwa woweruzayo ndikutsegulidwa mdani wake atabwera.

    7. Wosewerayo amayenera kutaya masewerawa ngati afika pa board nthawi yopitilira ola limodzi kuti ayambitsenso masewera omwe adasinthidwa (pokhapokha malamulo ampikisano atanena kapena woweruza asankhe zina)

    Komabe, ngati wosewera yemwe wasindikiza kusuntha kwachinsinsi ndi wosewera mochedwa, masewera amathera apo ngati:

    1. wosewera yemwe palibe ndiye wopambana chifukwa choti kusuntha kwake kwamseri kunapha mdaniyo, kapena
    2. wosewera yemwe sanapezeke adapanga zojambula chifukwa kusuntha kwake 'kumiza' mfumu ya wotsutsana, kapena udindo monga wafotokozedwera m'ndime 9.6 zidapangitsa gululo, kapena
    3. Wosewera yemwe adakhalapo pa board adataya masewerawa malinga ndi Article 6.9.
    1. Ngati envelopu yomwe ili ndi chinsinsi idasowa, masewerawa amayenera kuyambiranso pomwe anali kuyimitsidwa komanso nthawi munthawi yomwe idasungidwa. Ngati nthawi yomwe osewera akugwiritsa ntchito singabwerenso, mawotchiwo ayenera kusintha malinga ndi kuzindikira kwa wotsutsa. Wosewera yemwe adasindikiza kusuntha kwachinsinsi amachita kusunthaku komwe akuti ndi "chinsinsi" chomwe chili pagululo.
    1. Ngati ndizosatheka kukhazikitsanso malowa, masewera aimitsidwa ndipo masewera atsopano ayenera kusewera.

    Ngati, poyambitsanso masewerawa, nthawi yomwe ikugwiritsidwa ntchito imawonetsedwa molakwika pa wotchi iliyonse ndipo ngati m'modzi mwa osewera awonetsa asanakwere koyamba, vutolo liyenera kukonzedwa. Ngati cholakwikacho sichikuzindikirika, masewerawa ayenera kupitiliza popanda kuwongolera, pokhapokha ngati wofufuzayo azindikira kuti zotsatirapo zake zidzakhala zazikulu kwambiri.

    Kutalika kwa gawo lililonse lamasewera kuyang'aniridwa ndi nthawi ya wotsutsa. Nthawi zoyambira ndi zomaliza ziyenera kulengezedweratu.

    Masewera ena

     

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