Chess

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    Chess: How to play step by step 🙂

    To play Chess online for free, follow these step by step instructions:

    Step 1: . Open your preferred browser and go to the website of the game Emulator.online.

    Step 2: . As soon as you enter the website, the game will already be displayed on the screen. You only have to hit play.

    Step 3. The platform allows you to choose between playing with a robot or playing against another person who is with you. Can "Add or remove sound", choose the "Level of game”Put the image in"fullscreen"and ready!.

    Step 4. Your mission will be to leave the king without any possible movement, always remembering the rules of the game. TO

    Step 5. After completing a game, click settings to play again.

    See also the Official Chess Rules if you want to know the international official regulation of this popular game.

    What is Chess?King

    Chess is a board game recreational and competitive for two players. It is practiced on a square board and divided into 64 squares, alternately black and white. On one side are the 16 white pieces and on the other the same number of black pieces.

    Each player is entitled to one move at a time. The object of the game is to check the opponent.

    It is a game that requires logical reasoning and strategy, does not involve the element of luck, except the draw of colors at the beginning of the game.

    ChessboardTower

    The chess board has 64 squares distributed in 8 columns (vertical) and 8 rows (horizontal), each with 8 squares. The houses are alternately dark and light. The first square on the far left of the board should be a black square and the last square on the right a white square.

    Each column is designated by a letter running from A to H, while the rows are designated with a number from the 1 al 8 . In this way, each square is designated with the letter and number corresponding to its column and row (a1, b6, f5, etc.). This is the standard classification system in official competitionss.

    Chess board

    Chess piecesBishop

    Each player has NOTE 16, also divided into light and dark. The pieces are, in order of value:

    Chess pieces

    Please note: Some chess players do not consider pawns as pieces. Piece values ​​can also vary, even depending on the position of the piece on the board.

    At the beginning of the game, the pieces are distributed on the board as follows: the white pieces are placed on row 1, protected by the row of pawns in row 2, while the black pieces are on row 8 and his pawns on 7. Notice below:

    Numbered chess

    Beginners often confuse the position of the King and Queen, but to make it easier, just remember that the Queen always starts the game by occupying the square of the same color (White Queen in the White House, Black Queen in the Black House).

    Therefore, the white queen occupies square D1, while the black queen occupies the square D8. This configuration is used to prevent the King from being attacked right in the opening, as would happen if the opposing Queen were positioned in the same column.

    The board is divided into two wings:

    • The Queen's Wing
    • The king's wing

    The pieces are named after his wing. The towers in a1 y a8, for example, they are called Tower-Lady, while the towers in h1 and h8, Torre-Rei. The same happens with the other pieces, and even with the pawns, which are named after the piece they protect. The pawn in e2 is the king of pawns, the pawn in d2, the queen of pawns, the pawn in f2 is called king of pawns-bishop and the pawn in c2, queen of pawns-bishop, and so on.

    History of Chesspawn

    Chess history

    Chess is such an old game that, for all the years of its existence, there were various stories associated with its origin.

    Origins of Chess in India

    The first story told around the world takes place in the India. There was a little town called Taligana, and the only son of the mighty Rajah died in a bloody battle.

    The Rajah fell into depression and was never able to get over the loss of his son. The big problem was that the rajah not only died little by little, but also neglected his kingdom. It was only a matter of time before the kingdom fell completely.

    Seeing the fall of the kingdom, a brahmin named Lahur Sessa, one day went to the king and presented him with a board containing 64 squares, black and white, in addition to several pieces that faithfully represented the troops of his army, the infantry, the cavalry, tanks, elephant drivers, the main vizier and the Rajah himself.

    The priest told the rajah that such a game could calm his spirit and that it would certainly cure depression.. In fact, whatever the Brahman said had happened, the Rajah ruled his kingdom again, removing the crisis from his path.

    It was inexplicable how everything happened, with a single board with pieces responsible for eliminating the sadness of the rajah. As a reward, the brahmin was given the opportunity to ask for what he wanted. At first, he declined such an offer, as he thought he was unworthy of such an offer, but at the insistence of the Rajah, he made a simple request.

     

    The brahmin simply asked for a grain of wheat for the first square on the board, two for the second, four for the third, eight for the fourth and so on until the last frame. The rajah was amused by the naivete of the request.

    However, the humble request of the Brahmin was not so humble. After doing various calculations of how much wheat they would have to give him, they discovered that it would take the entire harvest of the kingdom for an incredible two thousand years to fulfill the priest's request.

    Impressed by the brahmin's intelligence, the rajah invited him to be the chief vizier (type of minister, advisor to the rajah) of the kingdom, and Sessa forgave him his great debt to wheat.

    In fact, what the brahmin presented to the rajah was not the game of chess, it was Chaturanga, one of the main variants of the modern game of chess.

    Origin of in Mythology

    Another great possibility that comes up in various stories about the origin of chess is that Ares, God of War, would have created a board to test his war tactics (which were very limited, as Ares was never known to have tactics in his battles, he was simply aggressive, attacking without precision most of the time).

    However, each piece of the board represented a part of his army, and it did, until Ares had a son with a mortal, and passed on the fundamentals of the game to him. Thereafter, the game would have reached the knowledge of mortals.

    Evolution of Chess in History

    It is known that y entre 1450 1850, chess began to have visible changes in relation to what we know today. It was during this period that various pieces gained movements that today we know, of course, all these movements and pieces originating from Chaturanga.

    Elephant (the predecessor of the modern bishop) could only move in two diagonal jumps. The vizier (the queen's predecessor) is just a house on the diagonals. The pedestrians they could not move two squares on their first move and castling did not yet exist. Pawns they could only be promoted to vizier, who was the weakest piece, after the pawn, due to their limited mobility.

    The chess rules that we know today began to be made in 1475, you are simply not sure where this beginning occurred. Some historians differ between Spain and Italy.

    It was during this period that pedestrians gained the mobility we know today, which consists of moving two squares on their first move and taking other pedestrians from pass .

    chess queens

    At that time, the new movements of the bishops and queen they were also defined and, more importantly, the queen became the most important piece in the game, being the only one capable of moving anywhere and moving forward or backward as many squares as she wanted.

    The movements of the other pieces, along with the rest of the rules that span all of chess, were only formally modified in the middle of the century. XIX, and these rules still remain today.

    Types of Chess

    For those who play chess as a hobby, or for the laity in the sport, chess matches are always played between two players on one board.

    However, in this sport, matches do not always take place this way, and there are more modalities than you can imagine at first glance. Starting with the duration of a match, which can vary from a few minutes to hours or even days to be declared over, sometimes without either player killing.

    The games played by professionals almost always make use of clocks that regulate the time of each player. In some cases a player can play against more than one opponent on different boards. Tables are not always square and there are chess modalities that have up to 36 pieces. You can play chess without seeing the board!

    Now we will see the different chess modalities and the many possibilities to make this game more interesting and challenging.

    chess pawns

    Classroom Chess Game

    Is traditional chess mode, in which the players meet face to face in front of the board.

    Virtual

    It is the mode in which players make use of computers connected to the Internet or on a local network, following the same rules as the traditional chess.

    Lightning (Blitz)

    It is a variation of traditional chess in which there is a 15 minute maximum time limit for each player. In this mode, professional players do not need to write down their bids.

    Simultaneous Chess Game

    In a simultaneous chess game, the chess player plays against more than one opponent on different boards.

    Blind

    In this mode a player does not see the boardEither by using a vending or even in a separate room. The blind match It is based on the memory of the chess player, who must decorate the position of the board and do his mental analysis.

    Postal Chess

    El postal or letter chess, as it is also known, is a chess mode practiced remotely, by correspondence. At first, chess players sent their offers through letters or postcards, but with time and advances in technology, nowadays it is possible to make use of e-mails, significantly reducing the waiting time for a response.

    The notation for this mode is different from traditional chess notations, mainly because it is practiced by people from all over the world, speakers of various languages. Epistolary chess has its own international federation(ICCF).

     

    Official Chess Regulations

    BASIC RULES OF THE GAME

    1. Objectives of the game of chess.

    1.1 The game of chess is played between two opponents who alternately move pieces on a square board called 'chessboard'. He player with white pieces starts the game. A player is said to 'have a turn to play' when his opponent's move has been made. (See Article 6.7)

    1.2 Each player's goal is putting the opponent's king 'under attack' in such a way that the opponent has no legal move. The player who achieves this goal is said to have killed the opponent's king and won the match. It is not allowed to abandon or put your own king under attack, nor to capture the opponent's king. The opponent whose king was checkmate lost the game.

    1.3 The game is tie if it results in a position where neither player has a chance to checkmate.

    2. Initial position of the pieces on the board.

    2.1 The chessboard is made up of a network of 8 × 8 with 64 squares alternately light equal (squares'whites') and dark (the squares'black').

    The board is placed between the players in such a way that the square in the corner to the right of each player be white.

    2.2 At the beginning of the game, a player has 16 light colored pieces (the "white" pieces); the other has 16 dark colored pieces (the black pieces “):

    These parts are as follows:

    • A white king, usually indicated by the symbol.
    • A white lady, indicated by the symbol.
    • Two white towers, indicated by the symbol.
    • Two white bishops, indicated by the symbol.
    • Two white horses, indicated by the symbol.
    • Eight white pawns, indicated by the symbol.
    • A black king, indicated by the symbol.
    • A black lady, indicated by the symbol.
    • Two white towers, indicated by the symbol.
    • Two black bishops, indicated by the symbol.
    • Two black horses, indicated by the symbol.

    2.3 The initial position of the pieces on the board is as follows:

    2.4 The eight vertically arranged houses are called 'columns'. The eight houses arranged horizontally are called 'rows'. The straight line of squares of the same color, moving from one end of the board to an adjacent one, is called a 'diagonal'.

    3. Movement of the pieces.

    3.1 It is not allowed to move a piece to a square already occupied by another piece of the same color. If a piece is moved to a square already occupied by an opponent's piece, the latter is captured and removed from the board as part of the same move. A piece is said to be attacking an opponent's piece if it can make a capture on that square, in accordance with Articles 3.2 to

    A piece is considered to attack a square, even if that square is prevented from moving to this square, because it would consequently leave or put its own king under attack.

    3.2 The bishop can move to any square along the diagonal.

    3.3 The bishop can move to any square along the file or row it is on.

    3.4 The queen can move to any square along the file, row, or diagonal that it is on.

    3.5 When making these moves, the bishop, rook or queen cannot jump over any pieces in their path.

    3.6 The horse can move to one of the squares closest to the one it occupies. Note that the square that the knight can move to is not in the same column, row, or diagonal.

    3.7 to. The pawn can be moved to a square, immediately in front of it, on the same file, which is not occupied, or

    3.7.1 On its first move, the pawn can be moved as mentioned in 3.7.a; alternatively, you can move two houses along the same column, provided they are both unoccupied, or

    3.7.2 The pawn may move to a square occupied by an opponent's piece, which is diagonally in front of it, in an adjacent file, capturing that piece.

    3.7.3 A pawn that attacks a square crossed by the opponent's pawn that has just advanced two squares in a single move from its original square can capture this opposing pawn as if it had only moved one square.

    This capture can only be done on the move immediately after the aforementioned advance and is called an 'en passant' socket.

    3.7.4. When the pawn reaches the farthest rank relative to its starting position, it must be exchanged as part of the same move on the same square for a queen, rook, bishop or knight of the same color as the pawn. The player's choice is not limited to the pieces already captured in the match.

    This exchange of a pawn for another piece is called 'promotion' and the action of the new piece is immediate.

    3.8 There are two different ways to move the king: move the king to any neighboring house that is not attacked by one or more of the opponent's pieces.

    It can also be through 'swinging'. This is a move made with the king and one of the rooks, of the same color along the player's first row, considered as a single king move and executed as follows: the king is transferred from his original house to two houses towards the tower that is in his original house, then the tower is transferred to the house that the king has just crossed.

    (1) The right to issue:

    1. if the king has already been moved, or
    2. with a tower that has already been moved

    (2) Castling is temporarily not allowed:

    1. if the square the king occupies, or the square he must pass through, or the square he will occupy, is attacked by one or more of the opponent's pieces, or
    2. if there is any piece between the king and the rook with which to castling.

    3.9 The king is said to be under control if he is attacked by one or more pieces of the opponent, even if those pieces are stuck, that is, they are prevented from leaving that house, because they would either leave or put their own king under control.

    No piece may move in a way that exposes or leaves its own king under control.

    4. Act of moving the pieces.

    4.1 Each movement must be done with one hand.

    4.2 As long as he expresses his intention in advance (for example, saying that I get "j'adoube" or "I adjust"), the player who has the turn to play can obtain one or more pieces in his houses.

    4.3 Except as provided in Article 4.2, if the player whose turn to play touches

    1. deliberately one or more of his own pieces on the board, he must play the first piece touched that can be moved, or
    1. one or more of his opponent's pieces, he must capture the first piece touched, which can be captured, or

    One piece of each color, he must capture the opponent's piece with his piece or, if this is illegal, move or capture the first piece touched that can be played or captured. If it is not clear which piece was played earlier, the player's own piece should be considered to have been played before his opponent's.

    4.4 If the player takes a turn:

    1. deliberately touch your king and the rook must throw on this wing if the move is legal.
    1. deliberately touches a rook and then his king, he is not allowed to pitch on this wing in this move and the situation must be regulated by Article 4.3.a
    1. With the intention of casting, it touches the king or king and a rook at the same time, but castling on this side is illegal, the player must make another legal move with their king (which may include castle on the other side). If the king has no legal move, the player is free to make any other legal move.
    1. promotes a pawn, the choice of the piece is only finalized when the piece has touched the promotion square.
      1. If none of the pieces touched can be moved or captured, the player can make any legal move.
      1. When a piece falls on a house, as a result of a legal move or part of a legal move, it cannot be moved to another house on this move. The movement is considered completed:
    1. in the case of a capture, when the captured piece has been removed from the board and the player, after placing his own piece on the new square, has released the captured piece from his hand;
    1. in the case of castling, when the player has released the rook from his hand on the square previously crossed by the king. When the player has released the king from the hand, the move will not be implemented, but the player no longer has the right to make any move other than castle on that wing, if this is legal;
    1. in the case of pawn promotion, when the pawn has been removed from the board and the player's hand has released the new piece after placing it on the promotion square. If the player has already released the pawn that reached the promotion box of his hand, the move has not yet been made, but the player is no longer entitled to play the

    pedestrian to another house.

    The measure is considered legal when all the relevant requirements of Article 3 are met. If the move is not legal, another legal move must be made as mentioned in Article 4.5

    4.7 The player loses the right to complain about the violation of article 4 by the opponent, from the moment he deliberately touches a piece.

    5. End of departure

    5.1 The game is won by the player who controls the opponent's king. This immediately ends the game, provided the move that produces the checkmate position is legal.

    If the match is won by the player whose opponent declares that he / she leaves. This immediately ends the game.

    5.2  The game is drawn when the player taking the turn has no legal move and his king is not under control. The match is said to have ended with the king "drowned." This immediately ends the game as long as the move that produced the stall position is legal.

    1. the game is drawn when a position appears in which neither player can checkmate the opponent's king through a series of legal moves. The match is said to have ended in a "dead position." This immediately ends the game as long as the move that produces the position is legal (see Article 9.6)
    2. The match takes place by mutual agreement between the players during the match. This immediately ends the game. (See Article 9.1)
    3. The game can be drawn if an identical position appears or has appeared on the board at least three times. (See Article 9.2)
    4. The game can be a draw if the players have made their last 50 consecutive moves without moving any pawns and without taking any captures. (See Article 9.3)

    COMPETITION RULES

    6. Chess clock

    6.1. 'Chess clock' means a clock with two time monitors, connected in such a way that only one of them can work at a time.

    'Clock' in the Laws of Chess means one of the two time monitors. Each clock has an arrow.

    'Arrow drop' means the end of the allotted time for a player.

    6.2. When using a chess clock, each player must make a minimum number of moves or all moves in a given period of time and / or an additional amount of time can be allocated after each move. All of this must be specified in advance.

    The time saved by a player during one period is added to the time of the next period, except in "time delay" mode.

    In the mode of "time delay", Both players are given a certain 'main thinking time'. Each player also receives a "fixed extra time" with each move. The main time countdown starts only after the fixed time has elapsed. As long as the player stops his clock before the "fixed time" runs out, the "main time" does not change, regardless of the proportion of the "fixed time" used.

    6.3 Immediately after an arrow falls, the requirements of Article 6.2 must be verified.

    6.4 Before the start of the match, it is up to the referee to decide where the clock is placed.

    6.5 The clock of the player with the white pieces must start at the time specified for the start of the game.

    6.6 Any player who reaches the board after the start of the session will lose the game. Therefore, the lag period is zero minutes. The competition rules may specify otherwise.

    If the rules of a competition specify a different period of absence, the following applies:

    If none of the players arrived at the starting time, the player with the white pieces must lose all time elapsed before his arrival, unless the competition regulations specify or the referee decides otherwise.

    6.7 During the game, each player, after making his move on the board, must stop his own clock and start his opponent's clock. A player must always be allowed to activate the pin on his watch. Your move is not considered complete until you have done it, unless the move ends the game (see Articles 5.1.a, 5.2.a, 5.2.b, 5.2.c and 9.6).

    The time between making the move on the board and stopping the clock itself, as well as starting the opponent's clock, is considered part of the time allotted to the player.

    1. The player must stop his watch with the same hand with which he made his move. Keeping your hand on the watch pin or hovering over it is prohibited.

    Players must handle the chess clock correctly. It is forbidden to use it with too much force, hold it or drop it. Inappropriate use of the watch will be penalized in accordance with Article 13.4.

    1. If the player cannot use the watch, he must provide an assistant to perform this task, with the support of the referee. Your watch must be set correctly by the referee in a fair manner.
      1. An arrow is considered to have fallen when the referee observes the fact or when one of the players has made a valid claim about it.
      2. Except when one of the provisions contained in Articles 5.1.a, 5.1.b, 5.2.a, 5.2.b, 5.2.c applies, the player who loses the prescribed number of moves in time will lose the game. However, the game is drawn when a position is reached where the opponent cannot checkmate the opponent's king through a series of possible legal moves.
      1. The. Any indication given by the watches will be considered conclusive in the absence of any obvious defect. Any chess clock that has an obvious defect must be replaced. The referee should replace the clock and use common sense in setting the times to be displayed with the hands of the clock that will replace the defective one.

    YES. If during the match it is discovered that the setting of one or both clocks was incorrect, the player or the referee must stop the clocks immediately. The referee must correct the shooting times and the shot counter. The referee must use his best judgment to determine the correct regulation.

    6.8 If both arrows fall and it is impossible to determine which one fell first:

    1. the game will continue if this occurs in any period of the game, except the last period.
    1. the game is drawn if it occurs during the game period, when all remaining moves must be completed.

    6.9 If a game needs to be stopped, the referee must stop the clocks.

    1. The player can only stop the clocks to seek the referee's help, for example, when a promotion occurs and the required piece is not available.
    1. The referee must decide when play should be restarted in any case.
    1. If the player stops the clocks to seek help from the referee, the referee must determine if the player has any valid reason for doing so. If it is obvious that there was no valid reason to stop the clocks, the player will be penalized in accordance with article 13.4

    6.10 If an irregularity occurs and / or the pieces must be replaced in a previous position, the referee must use his best judgment to determine the times available on the clocks. The referee should also, if necessary, adjust the number of movements backwards.

    6.11 In the game room: screens, monitors or wall boards are allowed, which show the current position of the board, the movements and the number of movements made, and clocks that also show the number of movements. However, the player cannot make any claims based solely on the information displayed in this way.

    7. Irregularities

    7.1 If during the game it is discovered that the initial position of the pieces was incorrect, the game will be canceled and a new game will be played.

    1. If, during a game, it appears that the board has been placed contrary to the provisions of Article 2.1, play continues, but the position already played must be transferred to a correctly placed board.

    7.2 If a match has started with the colors reversed, it must continue unless the referee decides otherwise.

    If the player moves one or more pieces, he must restore the correct position in his own time. If necessary, the player or opponent can stop the clock and call the referee. The referee may penalize the player who moved the pieces.

    7.3 If, during a game, it is discovered that an illegal move has been completed, including a failure in the ritual of promoting a pawn or capturing the opponent's king, the position immediately preceding the irregularity must be reestablished. If that position cannot be reconstituted, play must continue from the last identifiable position, before the irregularity. Clocks must be set in accordance with Article 6.13. Articles 4.3 and 4.6 apply to a move that takes place in place of an illegal move. Play must continue from the restored position.

    If after taking the actions described in Article 7.4.a, for the first two illegal moves by a player, the referee must give the opponent two additional minutes in each instance; for the third illegal move by the same player, the referee must declare the game lost for that player.

    However, the game is drawn when a position is reached where the opponent cannot checkmate the opponent's king through a series of possible legal moves.

    7.4 If, during a game, the pieces are found to have moved from their homes, the position immediately prior to the irregularity must be restored. If the position immediately preceding the irregularity cannot be determined, play shall continue from the last identifiable position before the irregularity. Clocks must be set in accordance with Article 6.13. Play must continue from the restored position.

    8. Annotation of offers

    8.1  During the game, each player is required to write on the 'spreadsheet' prescribed for the competition, in algebraic notation (See Appendix C), his own movements and those of the opponent, in a correct way, move the movement, in the manner clearer and more legible as possible. It is forbidden to write down the rally before making it on the scoreboard, except when a tie is claimed under Articles 9.2, 9.3, or a match is postponed in accordance with Article 1.a. of the Deferred Departure Guidelines.

    The player can respond to an opponent's move before writing it, if they wish.

    You must write your previous offer before making another one.

    Both players must enter the offer of a draw on the spreadsheet (See Appendix C.13).

    If the player is unable to score, an assistant, who can be provided by the player and accepted by the referee, will perform the moves. His watch must be set fairly by the referee.

    8.2 During the game, the spreadsheet must always be visible to the referee.

    8.3 The spreadsheets are the property of the event organizers.

    8.4 If the player has less than five minutes on his clock at any time during a game period and does not receive an additional time of 30 seconds or more after each move, during the remainder of the period he is not obliged to meet the requirements of the game. Section 8.1. Immediately after one of the 'arrows' falls, the player must update his worksheet before moving a piece on the board.

    8.5 If neither player is required to score, in accordance with Article 8.4, the referee or assistant must attempt to witness and record the movements. In this case, immediately after the arrow falls, the referee must stop the clocks. Then both players must update their score sheets, using either the referee or the opponent.

    1. If only one player is required to record, in accordance with the provisions of Article 8.4, as soon as one of the arrows has fallen, he must completely update his worksheet before moving a piece on the board. As long as it is your turn to make the move, the player can use the opponent's spreadsheet, but must return it before making his move.
    2. If a complete spreadsheet is not available, players must reconstitute the game on another board, under the supervision of the referee or assistant. Before the start of the match reconstruction, the referee will write down the current match position, the times and the number of moves made, if this information is available.
      1. If the spreadsheets are out of date and show that a player has exceeded the time limit, the next move should be considered the first of the next time period, unless there is evidence that more moves have been made.
      1. After the game, both players must sign both worksheets, indicating the result of the game. Even if it is incorrect, this result stands, unless the referee decides otherwise.

    9. Tied games

    9.1 Competition rules may specify that players may not agree to tie less than a certain number of moves or in any way, without the consent of the referee.

    9.2 If the rules of a competition allow for a mutually agreed draw, the following applies:

    1. The player who wants to propose a toss must do so after executing the movement on the board, before stopping the clock and starting the opponent's clock. An offer at any other time during the match remains valid, but Article 12.6 must be observed. Conditions cannot be included in the proposal. In both cases, the offer cannot be withdrawn and remains valid until the opponent accepts it, rejects it orally, rejects it by touching a piece with the intention of moving or capturing it, or if the game ends in some other way.
    1. The draw offer must be noted by the two players on their spreadsheets with a symbol (See Appendix C13).
    1. A draw claim based on Articles 9.2, 9.3 or 10.2 will be considered as a draw offer.

    9.2 The game is drawn, after a correct complaint from the player who has the turn to play, when he is in the same position, at least three times (not necessarily by repetition of movements)

    1. is about to appear, if you first write your move on the spreadsheet and declare to the referee your intention to make that move, or
    1. has just appeared and the player claiming the tie has the turn to play.

    The positions according to (a) and (b) are considered identical, if the same player has a turn, the pieces of the same type and color occupy the same squares, and the movement possibilities of all the pieces of the two players are the same.

    The positions are not identical if a pawn that could have been captured 'en passant' can no longer be captured in this way. When a king (or rook) is forced to move, it loses its right to cast, if any, only after being moved.

    9.3. The match is tied, due to a correct complaint from the player who has the turn to play, if:

    1. he records his move on his worksheet and declares to the referee his intention to execute his move, which will result in 50 moves made for each player without the movement of any pawn and without any captures, or
    1. The last 50 consecutive moves were made by both players, without any pawn movement or capture.
      1. If the player touches a piece according to Article 4.3 without claiming a tie, he loses the right to claim, according to Articles 9.2 and 9.3, on that move.
      1. If the player claims a tie, according to Articles 9.2 and 9.3, he can stop both clocks. (See Article 6.12.b) You cannot withdraw the claim
    1. If the claim is determined to be correct, the game is drawn immediately
    1. If the claim is determined to be incorrect, the referee must add three minutes to the opponent's remaining reflection time. Then the game should continue. If the claim is made on the basis of a planned offer, this offer must be made in accordance with the provisions of Article 4.

    9.4 The match is drawn when a position is reached where checkmate cannot occur due to any possible series of legal moves. This immediately ends the game as long as the move that produces this position is legal.

    10. Accelerated ending

    10.1 The 'accelerated ending' is the phase of a game in which all (remaining) moves must be made within a certain time limit.

    10.2 If the player, with the turn to play, has less than two minutes on his clock, he can claim a tie before his arrow falls. He must call the referee and can stop the clocks (See Article 6.12.b).

    1. If the referee accepts that the opponent is not making an effort to win the match, by normal means, or that the opponent cannot win by normal means, then he must declare a tie. Otherwise, you must postpone your decision or reject the complaint. If the referee postpones his decision, the opponent may be allowed two minutes of extra time and play must continue if possible in the presence of the referee. The referee must declare the final result later in the game or as soon as possible after the arrow has landed. You must declare a tie if you accept that the final position cannot be won by normal means, or that the opponent was not making enough attempts to win the game by normal means.
    1. If the referee rejects the claim, the opponent must have two minutes of extra time.
    1. The arbitrator's decision will be final (without appeal) for (a), (b), (c).

    11. Score

    11. Unless previously announced, otherwise, the player who wins their game, or wins by WO, receives a point (1), the player who loses their game or loses by WO receives (0) pt and the player who tie your game receives the score of half a point (½).

    12. Player conduct.

    12. 1 Players will not be able to take any action that causes a bad reputation in the game of chess.

    1. 2 Players may not leave the “playing environment” without the permission of the referee. The game environment consists of the game room, restrooms, light meal area, reserved area for smokers and other places designated by the referee. The player, who has the turn to play, cannot leave the playing hall without the permission of the referee.

    12.2 During the game, players are prohibited from making use of notes, sources of information or advice, or analyzing on another board.

    1. Without the permission of the referee, the player is prohibited from carrying a cell phone or other electronic means of communication in the game room, unless completely disconnected. If any of these devices produce noise, the player must lose the game. The opponent must win. However, if the opponent cannot win the game through a series of legal moves, his score must be considered a tie.
    1. Smoking is only allowed in the area determined by the referee.
      1. The spreadsheet should only be used to record bids, clock times, the bid of a tie, complaint-related records, and other relevant data.
      1. Players who have finished their games should be considered spectators.
      1. It is forbidden to distract or disturb the opponent in any way. This includes unreasonable complaints, unsurpassed sweepstakes offers, or presentation of a noise source in the playing area.
      1. Violations of any part of articles 12.1 to 12.6 will give rise to the application of the sanctions provided for in article 13.4.

    12.3 The persistent refusal of a player to comply with the Laws of Chess should be penalized by losing the game. The referee must decide the opponent's score.

      1. If both players are found guilty under Article 12.8, the game will be declared lost for both.
      1. In the case of art. 10.2.d. or Appendix D, the player cannot appeal against the referee's decision.

    In any other case, a player may appeal against any decision of a referee, unless the rules of the competition specify otherwise.

    13. Role of the referee

    13.1 The referee must verify that the Laws of Chess are strictly observed.

      1. The referee must act in the best interest of the competition. You need to make sure that there is a good playing environment, so that the players are not disturbed. You must also monitor the smooth running of the competition.
      1. The referee must observe the matches, especially when the players are on time, enforce the decisions he has made, and impose penalties on the players when appropriate.

    13.2 The referee may apply one or more of the following penalties:

    1. warning,
    2. increase the opponent's remaining time,
    3. reduce the remaining time of the offending player,
    4. declare the game lost,
    5. reduce the points earned in the game by the offending player,
    6. increase the points earned in the match by the opponent to the maximum possible for that match,
    7. expulsion from the event
      1. The referee may grant one or both players additional time in the event of an external disturbance during the match.
      1. The referee must not intervene in a game, except in the cases provided in the Laws of the

    Chess. It must not indicate the number of movements made, except when applying the provisions of Article 8.5, when at least one of the arrows has fallen. The referee must refrain from informing the player that his opponent has made a move or that the player has not started his clock.

      1. The. Spectators and players of other matches must not speak or interfere with a match in any way. If necessary, the referee can expel offenders from the playing environment. If someone observes an irregularity, they can only inform the referee.

    YES. Unless authorized by the referee, it is prohibited for anyone to use a cell phone or any communication device at the venue and in any other contiguous area determined by the referee.

    Fide

    14.1 Affiliated federations can request FIDE to provide an official decision on issues related to the Laws of Chess.

    Appendices

    A. Fast chess

    A1 The 'Quick Chess' game is one in which all movements must be performed within a predetermined time limit of at least 15 minutes, but less than 60 minutes for each player; or the main time + 60 times any increment is at least 15 minutes, but less than 60 minutes for each player.

    A2 Players are not required to record game movements.

    A3 When there is adequate supervision of the game (for example, one referee for a maximum of three matches) the Competition Rules apply.

    A4 When supervision is inadequate, the Competition Rules apply, except when governed by the following Laws of Rapid Chess:

    1. Once each player has made three moves, no complaints can be made regarding the incorrect placement of the pieces, the positioning of the board, or the setting of the clock. In the case of a change of position between king and queen, it is not allowed to throw with this king.
    1. The referee must intervene in accordance with the provisions of Art. 4 (Act of moving the pieces), only if required by one or both players.
    1. An illegal move is completed as soon as the opponent's clock starts. The opponent has the right to claim that the player has completed an illegal move, provided that he has not made his move. Only after such a complaint should the referee intervene. However, if both kings are under control or the promotion of a pawn has not been completed, the referee should intervene, if possible.
    1. 1. The arrow is considered to have fallen when one of the players makes a valid claim. The referee must refrain from pointing to a falling arrow, but may intervene if both arrows fall.

    A5 To claim a time win, the claimant must stop both clocks and notify the referee.

    For the claim to be successful, after the clocks have been stopped, the claimant's arrow must be 'up' and his opponent's arrow down after the clocks have been stopped.

    A6 If both arrows are released as described in (1) and (2), the referee must declare the game a tie.

    Flash of lightning

    B1 The 'lightning bolt' game is one in which all movements must be performed within a predetermined time limit of less than 15 minutes for each player; or the main time + 60 times any increment is less than 15 minutes.

    B2 When there is adequate supervision of the game (one referee for each match), the Competition Rules and the provisions of Article A2 apply.

    B3 When supervision is inadequate, the following should apply.

    1. Games will be governed by the Laws of Rapid Chess as provided in Appendix A, except when governed by the following Laws of Lightning.
    1. Articles 10.2 and A4c do not apply.
    2. An illegal move is completed as soon as the opponent's clock starts. Before making his own move, the opponent has the right to claim victory. However, the player has the right to claim a draw before making his own move, if the opponent cannot control it due to a series of possible legal moves. After the opponent has completed his move, an illegal move cannot be corrected unless there is common agreement without the intervention of a referee.

    Description of the algebraic system

    C1 In this description, "piece" means any piece, except a pawn.

    C2 Each piece is indicated with the first, capital letter, of its name. Example: R = king, D = queen, T = rook, B = bishop, C = knight. (In the case of the horse, for convenience, use N.)

    C3 For the first letter of the name of the pieces, the player is free to use the first letter of the name as it is normally used in his country. Example: F = fou (French for bishop), L = loper (Dutch for bishop). In printed magazines, the use of costumes is recommended.

    Pawns C4 They are not indicated by their first letter, but are recognized by their absence. Example: e5, d4, a5.

    C5 The eight columns (left to right for white and right to left for black) are indicated by lowercase letters, a, b, c, d, e, f, g, and h, respectively.

    C6 The eight rows (from bottom to top for the white player and from top to bottom for the black player) are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, respectively. Consequently, in the starting position, the white pieces are placed in the first and second rows; The black pieces are placed in the eighth and seventh rows.

    C7 As a consequence of the above rules, each of the 64 boxes is invariably indicated by a single combination of a letter with a number

    C8 Each movement of a piece is indicated by a) the first letter of the name of the piece in question and b) the place of arrival. There is no dash between a) and b).

    Examples: Be5, Nf3, Rd1.

    In the case of pedestrians, only the place of arrival is indicated. Examples: e5, d4, a5.

    C9 When a piece is captured, an x ​​is inserted between (a) the first letter and the name of the piece in question and b) the place of arrival. Examples: Bxe5, Nxf3, Rxd1. When the pawn makes a capture, the starting column must be indicated, then an x, finally the square of arrival. Examples: dxe5, gxf3, axb5. In the case of an 'en passant' capture, the target square is given, indicating where the pawn ultimately landed, and the letters 'ep' are added to the notation. Example: exd6 ep

    C10 If two identical tiles can go to the same square, the tile that moves is indicated as follows:

    1. If both pieces are in the same row: by a) the first letter of the name of the piece, b) the column of the place of departure, and c) the place of arrival.
    1. If the two pieces are in the same column: by a) the first letter of the name of the piece, b) the row of the place of departure, and c) the place of arrival

    If the pieces are in different columns and rows, method 1) is preferable. In the case of a capture, an 'x' can be added between b) and c).

    Examples:

    • There are two knights, in squares g1 and e1, and one of them moves to square f3: Ngf3 or Nef3, as the case may be.
    • There are two knights, on the g5 and g1 squares, and one of them moves to the f3 square: C5f3 or C1f3, as the case may be.
    • There are two knights, in house h2 and d4, and one of them moves to house f3: Nf3 or Ndf3, as the case may be.
    • If a catch occurs in frame f3, the above examples are changed by adding an 'x':

    1) If two pawns can capture the same piece as the opponent, the pawn that moved is indicated by a) the letter of the initial column, b) an 'x', c) the final square. Example: if there are white pawns on squares c4 and e4 and a black piece on d5, the notation for White's move is cxd5 or exd5, as appropriate.

    In the case of a pawn promotion, the pawn move is indicated, followed immediately by the first letter of the new piece. Examples: d8D, f8C, b1B, g1T.

    The tie offer must be marked as (=)

    Essential abbreviations:

    0-0 = mold with tower h1 or tower h8 (small rock)

    0-0-0 = mold with tower a1 or tower a8

    (big rock) x = captures

    + = check ++ or # = checkmate

    ep = catch "passing"

    It is not mandatory to write check, checkmate and captures on the spreadsheet.

    Accelerated final without referee present at the place of the match

    In cases where matches are governed by the provisions of Article 10, the player can claim a draw when he has less than two minutes on his clock and before his arrow falls. This ends the game. You can claim based on:

    1. that your opponent cannot win by normal means, and / or
    2. that your opponent is not making an effort to win by normal means.

    In hypothesis (a), the player must record the final position and his opponent checks it.

    In hypothesis (b), the player must record the final position in an updated spreadsheet.

    The opponent must verify both the final position and the worksheet.

    The complaint must be referred to an arbitrator, whose decision will be final.

    Rules of the game with blind and partially sighted people.

    E1 tournament directors should have the power to adapt the rules listed below according to local circumstances.

    In competitive chess between sighted players and visually impaired players (officially blind), either player may require the use of two boards, the observing players with a normal board, and the visually impaired player with a specially constructed board. The specially constructed deck must meet the following requirements:

    1. minimum dimensions 20 x 20 cm;
    2. the black houses are a little relieved;
    3. a small hole in each house;
    4. Each piece must have a small pin that fits perfectly in the hole of the houses;
    5. "Staunton" model pieces, the black pieces are specially marked.

    E2 The following rules should govern the game:

    1. Offers must be clearly announced, repeated by the opponent and executed on his board. When promoting a pawn, the player must announce which piece has been chosen. To make the announcement as clear as possible, it is suggested to use

    The following names instead of the corresponding algebraic letters

    A-Anna

    B-Bella

    C-Cesar

    D-David

    E-Eva

    F Felix

    G-Gustav

    H-Hector

    The rows from white to black should have the numbers in German:

    1 like

    2-two (dois)

    3-drei (three)

    4-eat (four)

    5-fuenf (five)

    6-sechs (six)

    7-seven (sete)

    8 acht (eight)

    The castling is announced "Lange Rochade”(Grande Roque in German language) and“ Kurze Rochade ”(Small castling in German language).

    The pieces use the German language names:

    "Koenig ”(King),“ Dame ”(Queen),“ Turm ”(Rook),“ Laeufer ”(Bishop),“ Springer ”(Horse) and“ Bauer ”(Pawn).

    1. On the visually impaired player's board, the piece is considered to have been touched when it has been removed from the fixing hole.
    1. An offer is considered to be executed when:
    1. in the case of a capture, if the captured piece has been removed from the board of the player whose turn it is to play;
    2. a part has been placed in a different fixing hole;
    1. The offer has been announced.

    Only then will the opponent's clock be started.

    As soon as points 2 and 3 above are incorporated, the normal rules are valid for the divination player.

    4. The use of a specially constructed watch for the visually impaired player is allowed. The watch should also have the following characteristics:

    1. a dial adjusted with reinforced hands, with every five minutes marked with a dot and every 15 minutes with two dots;
    2. An arrow that can be easily felt by touch. Special care must be taken that the arrows are properly adjusted so that the player can feel the hands of the last five minutes of the full hour.
    1. The visually impaired player must record the game in Braille, or write the movements by hand, or record them on magnetic tape.
    1. Any errors in the announcement of a move must be corrected immediately before the opponent's watch begins.
    1. If during the course of the game different positions appear on the two boards, they must be corrected with the help of the referee and consult the worksheets of the two players. If the two worksheets match, the player who wrote the move correctly, but executed it incorrectly, must correct their position to correspond to the move indicated on the worksheets.
    1. In the event of a divergence in the two worksheets, the position must be reconstituted to the point where the two worksheets coincide and the referee will reset the clocks accordingly if necessary.
    1. The visually impaired player will have the right to use an assistant who will perform any or all of the following obligations:
    1. Make each player's move on the opponent's board;
    2. Announce the movements of both players;
    3. Record the movements on the visually impaired player's worksheet and start the opponent's clock (taking into account rule 3.c);
    4. inform the visually impaired player, only at his request, the number of movements made and the time spent by both players;
    5. claim victory if the opponent's clock has fallen and inform the referee when the guessing player has touched one of his pieces.
    6. Carry out the necessary procedures in case of departure suspension.

    10. If the visually impaired player does not use an assistant, the visionary player can ask someone to take responsibility for fulfilling the obligations mentioned in points 9.a and 9.b.

    Chess rules 960

    F1  Before a game of Chess960, the starting position is placed randomly, subject to certain rules. After that, the game is played in the same way as classical chess. In particular, pieces and pawns have their normal moves, and the goal of each player is to check the opponent's king.

    Requirements for starting position

    The starting position for Chess960 must follow certain rules. The white pawns must be placed in the second row as in normal chess. All the remaining white pieces are randomly placed on the first row, but with the following restrictions:

    1. The king is placed somewhere between the two towers, and
    2. The bishops are placed in houses of opposite colors, and
    3. The black pieces are placed exactly opposite the white pieces.

    The initial position can be generated before departure, either by computer program or by using data, currency or cards, etc.

    Chess960 castling rules

    1. Chess960 allows each player to throw once per game, in a joint king and rook move in one move. However, some interpretations of the classic game of chess are necessary for castling, because the traditional rules assume starting positions for king and rook that are often not applicable to 960 chess.
    1. How to launch

    In Chess960, depending on the position of the king and rook before castling, castling is done using one of four methods:

    1. Double rock move: a move with the king followed by a move with the rook.
    2. Castling by transposition: exchanging the position of the king with that of the rook.
    3. Castling with a single king move: Make only one king move.
    4. Cast a single tower move: Perform only one tower move.

    Recommendation:

    1. When thrown on a physical board with a human opponent, it is recommended that the king move off the board surface near its final position, the rook will move from its initial position to its final position, and finally the king will be placed. Your destination home.
    2. After castling, the final positions of the rook and king would be exactly the same as in classical chess.

    Clarification

    So after the grand castling (known as 0-0-0 and known as queen-side castling in orthodox chess, the king is in house c (c1 for white and c8 for black) and the rook is in house d (d1 for white and d8 for black) After castling in square g

    (noted as 0-0 and known as king-side castling in orthodox chess), the king is on the g square (g1 for white and g8 for black) and the rook will be on the f square (f1 for white and f8 to black).

    Notes:

    1. To avoid any mistakes, it is advisable to say “I will launch” before making the offer.

    2. In certain starting positions, the king or rook (but not both) do not move during castling.

    3, in certain starting positions, castling can be done prematurely as a first move.

    1. All squares between the starting and ending squares of the king (including the final square), and all the squares between the starting and ending squares of the rook (including the ending square), must be vacant, except the king and rook squares .
    1. In some starting positions, some squares, which should have been vacant in traditional chess, may be occupied during castling. For example, after the big castling, it is possible, houses a, boe are still occupied, and after a small castling it is possible that houses and / oh are occupied.

    Guidelines in case a match needs to be postponed

    1. If a game does not end at the end of the prescribed time for the game, the referee must determine that the player has time to play, "seal" the next move. The player must write his move on the spreadsheet in an unambiguous notation, put his spreadsheet and the opponent's spreadsheet in an envelope, seal it and only after that stop the clock, without starting the opponent's clock.

    As long as the clock does not stop, the player reserves the right to change his secret movement. If, after being informed by the referee that the next move will be the secret, the player makes the move on the board, he must record it on his spreadsheet as his secret move.

    YES. The referee will consider that the player who has the turn to play, who wants to suspend the game before the end of the session, has used all the remaining time to end the session.

    2. The envelope must indicate:

    1. the names of the players;
    2. the position immediately preceding the secret move, and
    3. the times used by the players, and
    4. the name of the player who made the secret move, and
    5. the secret offer number and
    6. the tie offer, if the proposal was made before the match was suspended, and
    7. the date, time and place of the restart of the match.

    3. The arbitrator must verify the accuracy of the information contained in the envelope and is responsible for the safekeeping of it.

    4.If the player proposes a tie after the opponent makes the secret move, the proposal remains valid until the player accepts or rejects it, in accordance with Article 9.1.

    5Before the restart of the game, the position immediately before the secret move must be placed on the board and, in addition, the time used by the players when the game was suspended must be indicated on the clocks.

    6.If before the restart of the game, the players draw by mutual agreement, or one of the players notifies the referee that he / she is leaving, the game is over. The envelope should only be opened when the player who has to answer the secret move is present.

    Except in the cases mentioned in articles 5, 6.9 and 9.6, the game is lost to the player whose secret movement record

    1. is ambiguous or
    2. is false, such that its true meaning is impossible to establish, or
    3. It is illegal.

    If when restarting the game

    1. the player to answer the secret move is present, the envelope is opened, the secret move is made on the board and he puts on his watch.
    2. the player who has to answer the secret move is not present, his watch must be on. Upon arrival, the player can stop his watch and call the referee. The envelope is opened and the secret move is made on the board. Your clock then starts.
    3. The player who made the secret move is not present, his opponent has the right to reply on his spreadsheet, seal his spreadsheet in a new envelope, stop his clock and start the opponent, instead of responding in the normal way . In this case, the new envelope must be kept in the custody of the referee and opened after the arrival of the opponent.

    7. The player must lose the game if he arrives at the board more than one hour late for the restart of a postponed game (unless the rules of the competition specify or the referee decides otherwise)

    However, if the player who sealed the secret move is the late player, the game ends otherwise if:

    1. the absent player is the winner due to the fact that his secret move killed the opponent, or
    2. the absent player produced a draw because his move 'drowned' the opponent's king, or a position as described in Article 9.6 resulted on the board, or
    3. The player present at the board has lost the game in accordance with Article 6.9.
    1. If the envelope containing the secret movement has disappeared, the game must be restarted from the position at the time of suspension and with the times on the clocks set as at the time of postponement. If the time used by the players cannot be reset, the clocks must be adjusted at the discretion of the referee. The player who sealed the secret move executes the move that claims to be the “secret” on the board.
    1. If it is impossible to reestablish the position, the game is canceled and a new game must be played.

    If, when restarting the game, the time used is incorrectly indicated on any of the clocks and if one of the players signals it before making their first move, the error must be corrected. If the error is not noticed, the game must continue without correction, unless the referee realizes that the consequences will be very serious.

    The duration of each suspended game session will be controlled by the referee's clock. The start and end times must be announced in advance.

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